The existence of social exclusion makes it difficult to achieve particular social objectives, such as reducing poverty and malnutrition, because there are often hidden barriers to reaching those who are socially excluded. Social exclusion also generally involves exclusion in more than one dimension, and these can reinforce each other. For example, a combination of economic and educational exclusion makes it more difficult to advance on either front.
The following book aims to measure the consequences of social exclusion through a series of country case studies in Latin America. The chapter below outlines the findings from these case studies.
Behrman, J., Gaviria, A., & Szekely, M. (2003). Social Exclusion in Latin America: Perception, Reality and Implications. In Behrman, J. R. et al., Who’s In and Who’s Out: Social Exclusion in Latin America. Inter-American Development Bank
What are the perceptions and realities of social exclusion in Latin America? This chapter summarises findings from five country studies. Inequality appears to arise largely from the absence of opportunities for large segments of the population. Exclusion of some groups on the basis of gender, ethnic origin, place of residence or social status may explain inequality of opportunity. The most obvious policy responses are not always the best options.
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