Examples of social exclusion analyses

The disadvantages faced by the excluded are multidimensional and overlapping.  Which of the various dimensions – if any – is most central to the exclusion of a particular group will depend on context. The concept of social exclusion can form the basis for context-specific analysis, and can allow for contesting definitions of integration. So, in some societies or among some groups labour market participation may form the core element around which other elements of deprivation coalesce, whereas elsewhere religious identity may be the more important factor. The resources below present some country-specific analyses of social exclusion.

Peleah, M., & Ivanov, A. (2013). Measuring Intersecting Inequalities through the Social Exclusion Index: A Proposal for Europe and Central Asia (Working Paper No. 22). UNECE.
Assessments of social exclusion by group can lack accuracy, relevance to policy, and complexity. This quantitative paper argues that a social exclusion index constructed by UNDP can help to address these weaknesses. The index measures exclusion from economic life, social services, and civic and social participation. The authors apply it to seven countries in Central Asia and South-Eastern and Eastern Europe. They find that social exclusion stems from three factors: individual risks; local conditions (e.g. characteristics of the local economy); and drivers of exclusion in the specific national, regional or local environment (e.g. structures such as private institutions, discriminatory behaviours, policies). This enables the use of individualised approaches and provides stronger evidence to discuss policy options.
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Gacitúa Marió, E., & Woolcock, M. (with M. von Bulow). (2008). Overview: Assessing Social Exclusion and Mobility. In Gacitúa Marió, E., & Woolcock, M. (Eds.), Social Exclusion and Mobility in Brazil (pp. 1-34). World Bank.
What is the way forward for poverty reduction in Brazil? This study looks at the problems of inequality, exclusion and restricted mobility. It argues that income inequality is the main impediment to poverty reduction in Brazil. Therefore, redistributive policies are essential to enhancing social inclusion. This means focusing on developing market, political, social and cultural institutions and delivery mechanisms that will sustain progress towards a more accountable and cohesive society.
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Human Rights in China. (2007) China: Minority Exclusion, Marginalisation and Rising Tensions. Minority Rights Group.
Over the past twenty-five years, China has undergone rapid social and economic change. This report argues that this transformation has exposed the Chinese government’s negative policies towards minorities. Key issues preventing minorities from exercising their rights include limited political participation, inequitable development and inadequate protection of minority cultural identity.
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Byrne, S., & Chakravarti, S. (2009). Inequality, Power and Social Exclusion in India. Poverty-wellbeing.net, March.
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