Although Sub Saharan countries may have signed up to Multilateral Environment Agreements and regional frameworks and these are theoretically part of the country’s law, their importance is rarely considered at the national level. Therefore, there is a large disconnect between international, regional and local legal regimes. A consistent theme in the reviews is that significant work needs to be done in each country to effectively tackle the illegal wildlife trade, and weaknesses exist in the principal legislation. These include loopholes, variations on provincial implementation of national laws, inadequate penalties, and in some cases, extremely antiquated legislation or legislation which is contrary to the country’s obligations under CITES. Substantial differences exist across Sub Saharan African countries in terms of the severity of penalties for violating local wildlife law. Countries with particularly stringent fines and/or lengthy jail sentences of four years or more for a wide variety of wildlife offences include South Africa, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Zambia. Some countries have recently amended or updated their principal legislation.
Price, R.A. (2017). National and Regional Legal Frameworks to control the Illegal Wildlife Trade in Sub Saharan Africa. K4D Helpdesk Report. Brighton, UK: Institute of Development Studies