In 2011 Egypt experienced mass protests culminating in the fall of long serving president, Hosni Mubarak. The country’s first democratically elected President, the Muslim Brotherhood’s Mohamed Morsi’s, time in power was short-lived. He was deposed by Egypt’s military on 3 July 2013, following anti-government demonstrations (Tobin et al, 2015, p. 31). Abdul Fatah el-Sisi, former head of the armed forces, was elected in June 2014 (Tobin et al, 2015, p. 31). Sisi’s presidency has seen a return to military rule. There has also been a rise in the number of terrorist attacks in Egypt since he came to power in 2014.
The literature does not identify any significant opportunities for peace or institutional resilience in Egypt. It does however provide some policy recommendations.
Much of the English language literature on conflict in Egypt consists of opinion pieces produced by European and North American think tanks. There are also a small number of peer-reviewed journal articles, discussing Egypt post-Arab Spring. Gender is largely addressed in the context of sexual violence and in the context of unemployment.