Social exclusion

Social exclusion


How to use this guide

This guide can be read online usng the links at the top of this page. Alternatively, the full guide can be downloaded as a PDF (640kB).

About this guide

This GSDRC resource guide aims to introduce some of the best literature on the definitions, understandings, causes, and impact of social exclusion, as well as the ways in which exclusion can be measured and addressed by governments, civil society actors and international organisations. It also highlights the major debates taking place on the issue within the international development and academic communities. It is intended primarily as a reference guide for policymakers. New publications and emerging issues will be incorporated regularly.

The guide was written by Seema Khan (GSDRC) in December 2009, in close collaboration with Frances Stewart (Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity), Rosalind Eyben (Institute of Development Studies) and Professor Bina Agarwal (University of Delhi). The GSDRC also appreciates the contributions made by Rosamund Ebdon (DFID). Comments, questions or documents can be sent to

Latest additions

The following document summary was added in February 2012: