Cross-border conflict drivers and breaks – Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran and Iraq

This report provides an overview of the evidence on cross-border conflict drivers and breaks along the Pakistan–Afghanistan–Iran–Iraq route. Direct evidence on the nature of conflict-related flows along this route in its entirety is limited. Therefore, this report includes evidence on crossborder conflict dynamics between neighbouring countries along the route. This report was ...» more

Urban poverty in Nepal

In presenting urban poverty trends and data in Nepal, key findings include: Urban poverty is becoming more pervasive in Nepal: The poverty rate is increasing in urban areas, whilst it is declining in rural areas (ADB, 2013; UNDP, 2014). Urban poverty rates vary substantially across Nepal: Urban areas in the hill ecological zone are the least poor with a poverty incidence ...» more

Urbanisation and urban growth in Nepal

Nepal is one of the ten least urbanised countries in the world. However, it is also one of the top ten fastest urbanising countries. In 2014, the level of urbanisation was 18.2 per cent, with an urban population of 5,130,000, and a rate of urbanisation of 3 per cent (UN DESA, 2014). For the period 2014-2050, Nepal will remain amongst the top ten fastest urbanising countries in ...» more

Security and justice evidence mapping

This report identifies empirical evidence on the outcomes of security and justice (S&J) interventions, and provides a visual overview of its findings in an evidence gap map. The evidence gaps appear where outputs and outcomes are less tangible and more difficult to operationalise and measure. The evidence is scarce for a number of justice-specific output and outcome ...» more

Strategic communications and foreign fighters

Key Findings: There is limited coverage of strategic communications programmes specifically aiming to prevent the recruitment of citizens who travel to conflict zones to become foreign fighters. There is relatively more coverage of strategic communications with respect to broader counter-radicalisation or countering violent extremism (CVE) approaches, but there are few case ...» more

The role of security organisations in security sector reform

There is consensus that donor approaches to SSR have failed to achieve the ambitious goals and objectives espoused in policy documents. Debates in recent literature centre on the reasons for this ‘policy-practice gap’ (Sedra, 2010; Bakrania, 2014b). Key themes include: There is agreement in the literature that donor assistance has generally taken an apolitical and technical ...» more

Libya: border security and regional cooperation

This rapid literature review examines security-related developments that determine Libya’s relationships with its neighbours – Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Niger, Sudan and Tunisia. The report also looks at the incentives for neighbouring countries to maintain or develop regional relationships or cross-border mechanisms with Libya and the main challenges in implementing them. It also ...» more

Policy responses to criminal violence in Latin America and the Caribbean

Combatting the threat posed by transnational and domestic criminal organisations has become a critical concern of governments throughout Latin America and the Caribbean. Ideas of how to reduce crime and organised violence in this region vary between those who advocate for state-security led approaches and those who argue for approaches that tackle the causes of crime and the ...» more

Organised violence and its impacts in Central America’s northern triangle

A range of criminal organisations operate in Central America’s northern triangle. Violence conducted by criminal organisations is one manifestation of a broader culture of violence that is endemic to many Central American societies (UNODC, 2007). At the personal and societal level: The extensive loss of life through homicide is the most obvious humanitarian outcome of violence ...» more

Conflict drivers, international responses, and the outlook for peace in Mali: A literature review

This literature review aims to reflect relevant empirical and policy analysis together with more up-to-date commentary on the situation in Mali, as of January 2013. The conflict in Mali is highly complex and fluid: the situation with regards to the various groups engaged in conflict is developing on a daily basis, as are the responses from local and international ...» more

Political Economy of Saudi Arabia’s Overseas Aid Assistance

Key findings: The Saudi Arabian aid system is fragmented and complex, and much of it is privately and secretively channelled through the Saudi ruling families. The literature suggests that Saudi Arabia is an extremely generous donor, both in terms of humanitarian assistance and longer-term development aid. It has been the largest donor of overseas development assistance (ODA) ...» more

Progress of the World’s Women: In Pursuit of Justice

UN Women

This report explores how justice systems can be made to work for women. Where laws and justice systems work well, they can provide an essential mechanism for women to realise their human rights. However, laws and justice systems that reinforce unequal power relations must be transformed in order to fulfil the potential they hold for accelerating progress towards gender ...» more

Women and Health: Today’s Evidence Tomorrow’s Agenda


What are women's health needs? What is their contribution to the overall health of societies? This report takes stock of the health of women around the world and draws attention to the consequences and costs of failing to address health issues at appropriate points in women's lives. Addressing women's health is a necessary and effective approach to strengthening health systems ...» more

Gender and Climate Change: Overview Report

Emmeline Skinner

This report argues that gender transformation is both an important condition and a potential end goal of effective climate change responses and poverty reduction. It highlights the need to put people at the centre of climate change responses, and to pay particular attention to the challenges and opportunities that climate change presents in the struggle for gender equality. ...» more

Who Makes the News? Global Media Monitoring Project 2010

Margaret Gallagher et al.

To what degree is the news media democratic, inclusive and participatory from a gender perspective? This report presents findings of a survey taken on one 'ordinary' news day to record the portrayal and representation of women and men in the news media. The results are compared with previous surveys, taken every four years since 1995, to illustrate longitudinal trends. Women ...» more

Desk Review of the Factors Which Enable and Constrain the Advancement of Women’s Political Representation in Forum Island Countries

Elise Huffer

The Pacific Forum Island Countries (FICs) have formally recognised that the participation of women in political decision-making needs to be enhanced. However, the political advancement of women remains constrained by both institutional and attitudinal factors. Addressing these problems requires both regional and national approaches. All FICs have endorsed the UN resolutions ...» more

Engaging Men and Boys in Changing Gender-based Inequity in Health: Evidence from Programme Interventions

Gary Barker, Christine Ricardo, Marcos Nascimen

How do social constructions of masculinity affect health equity? What kinds of interventions can produce behavioural change in men and boys? This review assesses the effectiveness of programmes seeking to engage men and boys in achieving gender equality and equity in health. Gender norms influence how men interact with their partners, family and children on a wide range of ...» more