Impacts of social protection programmes on children

The impact of social protection on children is under-researched. Key findings and insights from the literature include: Multidimensional social protection systems have had positive impacts on addressing economic and human development, multiple vulnerabilities, and both social and economic inequities. Child-sensitive social protection programmes are more intentionally ...» more

Climate change and social development

solar power in India (Abbie Trayler-Smith/Panos Pictures/DFID)

This topic guide synthesises literature on the links between climate change and social development, and includes evidence of their interactions, lessons, approaches and tools. It considers climate change impacts and climate-relevant interventions in the following areas: five sectors: agriculture and food security, health, water, energy, and low-carbon transport; three ...» more

Social dimensions of climate change: Equity and vulnerability in a warming world

This introductory chapter calls for the combination of climate change measures with social development and sustainability goals, and emphasises the impact of climate change on inclusion and social justice. Many current mitigation measures risk undermining the livelihoods of those most vulnerable to impacts of climate change, with unintended consequences. It introduces key ...» more

Cities and climate change: Global report on human settlements 2011


In the context of rising urbanisation, climate change is presenting unique challenges that require greater understanding. Challenges range from the physical (increasing heat waves, higher sea levels), but also providing basic services. The impact will be particularly severe in low-elevation coastal zones, where many of the world’s largest cities are located. Despite this, most ...» more

Incorporating climate change considerations into agricultural investment design: a guidance document

How can climate change considerations be incorporated into all stages of agricultural investment (farming, fisheries, livestock and forestry) programme cycles? This guide intends to raise awareness and understanding of the basics of climate change adaptation and mitigation in the agricultural sector. It advises using key information sources, methods and tools for climate change ...» more

Energy for all: Harnessing the power of energy access for chronic poverty reduction

Shonali Pachauri; Andrew Scott; Lucy Scott; Andrew Shepherd

Energy poverty strongly correlates with income poverty, and is most acute in the poorest households in rural areas. This guide argues that access to electricity, combined with assets, can help people escape persistent poverty. Complementary interventions, coordination, and inter-sectoral collaboration are recommended to maximise the poverty reduction potential of energy ...» more

Climate change and food security: Risks and responses


This publication provides an overview of the effects of climate change on vulnerabilities in food security and nutrition, and explores ways to reduce negative impacts through adaptation and resilience. Reducing vulnerability and investing in resilience, in particular through social protection at household level, is key to adaptation. The report advises that food security and ...» more

Social protection and sustainable natural resource management: initial findings and good practices from small-scale fisheries

Christophe Béné, Stephen Devereux, Keetie Roelen

How does social protection and other measures reduce vulnerability and strengthen resilience among households and communities dependent on renewable natural resources?   The paper identifies and reviews the potential of social protection policies, schemes and instruments. It shows that small-scale fishers and fishworkers are typically inadequately or totally unprotected. While ...» more

Gender roles and opportunities for women in urban environments

Key findings include: Urban women, on the whole, have greater access to services and infrastructure, more opportunities to engage in paid employment, and are subject to fewer sociocultural restrictions than women living in rural areas. However, they do not benefit equally with men in urban environments. They are disadvantaged in income poverty, asset poverty, time and ...» more

Evidence on the comparative cost efficiency and effectiveness of varying social assistance modalities

There is limited literature that rigorously measures cost efficiency of programme modalities, or that compares modalities. The key points raised in the literature include the following: Transfer appropriateness is context-specific and determined by multiple factors including programme objectives Cash transfers are generally found to be the least-cost modality – which ...» more