Gender norms in the Western Balkans

The Western Balkans remains a region dominated by patriarchal gender norms. The biggest challenge for improving gender equality is changing the mentality of women and men towards traditional gender roles (Petričević, 2012). The literature consistently identifies social attitudes as a barrier to increasing gender equality. Many people are not aware of women’s rights or gender ...» more

Evidence on education as a driver for migration

This report synthesises two previous reports on drivers of migration1, and focuses on the evidence on education’s role. The previous reports focused on education and migration in fragile and conflict-affected states (FCAS), and youth employment and education in low and middle income countries. The papers presented below reflect these original criteria, but reframe the studies ...» more

Social development and human development

Charlotte Kesl / World Bank (A school in Colombia)

This Topic Guide aims to answer the question ‘What is the interaction between social development issues and human development outcomes?’ An individual’s right to lead a long and healthy life, to be educated and to enjoy a decent standard of living cannot be realised without addressing social development issues. This is because these issues determine individuals’ access to ...» more

State-citizen relations in North Africa since 2011

There is a limited evidence base on the changes after the Arab uprisings. A great deal of literature focuses on democratisation. Literature from the first few years after 2011 tends to be optimistic about potential change, while the later literature often notes reversals or unfulfilled opportunities. Key findings include: The expected democratic changes have largely not ...» more

Drivers of irregular migration in North Africa

Irregular migration is the movement of people that takes place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit and receiving countries (IOM definition). A complex array of factors drives irregular migration. Most literature states that economic and conflict-related reasons, along with social networks and social support, are the major factors influencing migration. Economic ...» more

Impact of multilateral organisations on humanitarian outcomes

Even with strong evidence on programme impact, it is hard to attribute humanitarian results directly to multilateral organisations’ (MLOs) or specific forms of aid architecture. In an emergency context, there tend to be many actors and interventions and it is difficult to show a direct chain of causality between specific funding streams or organisations and results. The key ...» more

Transporting materials to schools

Most programmes have faced similar challenges and limitations in transporting materials to schools, and have found transferable approaches to what works. These are: Financing: the burden of paying for delivery falls on different actors. The literature is clear that either the government or the publishers should cover the costs, but often it has been teachers who travel to ...» more

Impact of communication campaigns to deter irregular migration

Understanding the decisions to leave is a key part of the success of communication campaigns to deter irregular migration. However there is very little evidence on the impact and effectiveness of these campaigns and anecdotal evidence suggests that they have limited, if any, effect on migrants’ decisions to leave. Irregular migration is the movement of people that takes ...» more

Comprehensive sexuality education

Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) has strong support in the international discourse, and is supported by a relatively robust evidence base. In general, the evidence suggests that CSE has positive impacts on behaviour change, such as increased condom use, girls’ empowerment and delayed sexual debut. This is achieved through increasing knowledge and changing attitudes. ...» more

Women’s networks in MENA

There is a large number of women’s networks in the region, ranging in size and influence. Grassroots networks exist alongside high-level political and policy networks. Most are focused on women-only activities. The key areas of activity are: improving women’s entrepreneurship and developing women as business owners and business leaders; peacebuilding; reducing violence ...» more

Social media and governance

The literature suggests that social media has a lot of potential to be used for governance purposes, but that this is not capitalised on in most contexts. Many governments are using e-government strategies and disseminating information through online channels, but not soliciting citizen feedback. Where there are two-way channels, it is very unclear whether citizen feedback is ...» more

Social protection Management Information Systems (MIS)

MIS are useful because integrated data management of social protection programmes can lead to more equitable distribution of resources; provide oversight of multiple schemes; establish links with other services; and increase efficiency through economies of scale (Barca & Chirchir, 2014). There is a considerable literature on policy guidance, design guidelines, and a general ...» more

Social protection accountability

Accountability and good governance are strong themes of development interventions in general, but have yet to be applied systematically to social protection programmes. Social assistance accountability mechanisms usually focus on two main areas: (i) the flow of information and (ii) the flow of funds (Bassett et al., 2012). Most programmes have implemented a series of audits, ...» more