Legal and technical support programmes for negotiations on extractives or land deals

Key findings: Sub-Saharan Africa’s abundant natural resources could significantly boost the region’s economic growth and development, and large-scale projects carried out by potential investors, if strategically managed, are a potential source of income. Yet, many country governments lack robust regulatory frameworks, specialised knowledge and technical expertise, and ...» more

Social Exclusion Approaches to Poverty Analysis

This report identifies and reviews a selection of tools and methods used by bilateral, multilateral and non-governmental development agencies to conduct social exclusion and other social approaches to poverty analysis. In recent years, development agencies have grown increasingly dissatisfied with income-only approaches to understanding poverty, and have begun to focus on the ...» more

The Uses and Abuses of Civil Society in Africa

Julie Hearn

What are the implications of the development paradigm that aims to bring civil society into a closer relationship with the state? This article argues that donor influence in Ghana, South Africa and Uganda during the late 1990s resulted in a vocal, well-funded civil society that builds societal consensus for the state's development strategy. The development agenda of ...» more

The Missing Link: Fostering Positive Citizen-State Relations in Post-Conflict Environments

Henriette von Kaltenborn-Stachau

Why does the public sphere warrant greater attention in post-conflict assistance? How can this be achieved? Citing examples from Timor-Leste, Liberia and Burundi, this chapter argues that effectively addressing the 'invisible' consequences of conflict requires civil society, the media and the state to connect and engage constructively. The analytical framework that best ...» more

The Four Pillars of Legal Empowerment

UN Commission on the Legal Empowerment of the Poor

Most of the world's poor live outside the ambit of the law and their poverty is both a cause and consequence of their lack of effective legal rights. This chapter argues that addressing the issue of legal empowerment is both smart politics and good economics. It presents a framework of legal empowerment based on 1) access to justice and the rule of law; 2) property rights; 3) ...» more

Broadening Spaces for Citizens in Violent Contexts

Lyndsay McLean-Hilker et al.

How can people be directly involved in finding solutions for their security and livelihood needs? Research suggests that, although violence deters citizens from taking action, external actors in violent contexts can help to facilitate citizen action that is non-violent and socially legitimate. To do this, donors need a locally nuanced understanding of the complex relationship ...» more

From “Refugee Warriors” to “Returnee Warriors”: Militant Homecoming in Afghanistan and Beyond

Kristian Berg Harpviken

Why do some refugees, upon return to their countries of origin, engage in violent action? This paper from George Mason University assumes that in some refugee situations a significant share of returnees engage in militant action. It examines three sets of explanatory factors (enabling environment, ideology and organisation) in order to contribute to an expanding analytical ...» more

The Transnational Political Engagements of Refugees: Remittance Sending Practices amongst Somalis in Norway

Cindy Horst

How do diaspora groups seek to influence political developments in their home countries? What can be learned from the engagement of Somalis living in Norway with conflict and reconciliation processes in the Somali territories? This article from Conflict, Security and Development shows that the Norwegian Somali diaspora engages primarily on a sub-national level – through clan ...» more

Power-sharing, Transitional Governments and the Role of Mediation

Katia Papagianni

Power-sharing transitional governments are common components of peacemaking and peacebuilding efforts. They guarantee the participation of representatives of significant groups in political decisionmaking and reduce the danger that one group will become dominant. Power sharing among former enemies is difficult to manage and potentially conflict provoking. This paper from the ...» more

Organised Diaspora Networks and Homeland Peacebuilding: The Bosnian World Diaspora Network as a Potential Development Actor

Gregory Kent

How connected with the homeland are existing diaspora networks? What factors limit and promote strong relationships? How effective have diaspora networks been in assisting the transformations required for peacebuilding? This journal article assesses the potential of diasporas to contribute to post conflict reconstruction in the homeland, looking at the case of the Bosnian World ...» more

Civil Society Beyond the State: The Impact of Diaspora Communities on Peace Building

Feargal Cochrane

Diaspora communities are key aspects of civil society, but what are their potential positive contributions to peacebuilding? This journal article by Feargal Cochrane identifies diaspora as a neglected aspect of existing literature on the role and impact of civil society in divided societies. As seen in the case of the Irish diaspora in the Northern Ireland conflict and peace ...» more

Protracted Refugee Situations and the Regional Dynamics of Peacebuilding

Gil Loescher, James Milner, Edward Newman

What are the links between the prolonged presence of refugee populations and fragile states? How can protracted refugee situations contribute to conflict, instability and effective peacebuilding? This article explores the challenges posed by protracted refugee situations to human rights and security. The question of refugees has been largely absent from the international ...» more

Conflict-generated Diasporas and Transnational Politics in Ethiopia

Terrence Lyons

How can diaspora groups created by conflict contribute to either increased polarisation or new opportunities for peace in the homeland? This article in Conflict, Security and Development explores ways in which conflict-generated diaspora groups link processes of globalisation and transnational migration to homeland politics and conflicts. The case of the Ethiopian diaspora in ...» more

Elites and Institutions: A Literature Review

A Orrnert, T Hewitt

Exploring elites and their relationship to institutions can enhance the understanding of politics in Africa. This literature review by the Governance and Social Development Resource Centre (GSDRC) summarises current knowledge of how elites work with and through political institutions. It focuses on the large volume of literature published in the last five to ten years on ...» more

Globalization and Goals: Does Soccer Show the Way?

B Milanovic

Increasing returns to scale, technological transfer and endogenous skills have received a lot of attention from the new literature on growth. This paper, from the World Bank and Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, uses the example of soccer (football) to address these issues. It suggests that soccer’s combination of commercialization and regulation presents interesting ...» more