Multidimensional poverty

While people generally recognise poverty instantly when they encounter it, they often find difficulty in saying precisely what it is.  Experts share the same difficulty and hence definitions frequently reflect what can most readily be measured. Poverty is commonly taken to be low income and, in global debates, is often indexed by income of $1.25…» more

Extreme and persistent poverty

Extreme and persistent poverty is once again a high profile issue thanks to the commitment to end extreme poverty and leave no one behind in the formulation of the Sustainable Development Goals. Given the great difficulty of the task ahead, it will remain so for some years to come. While a lot is known about…» more

The social impact of private sector development

The private sector can have a transformational impact on peoples’ lives as a creator of jobs and producer of goods and services that poor people use. Donor agencies are paying increasing attention to how private sector development can be leveraged to support poverty reduction and sustainable, equitable and inclusive economic growth. Making use of social development thinking is ...» more

Poverty eradication in Iraq

Despite being an oil-rich, lower-middle income country, poverty remains prevalent in Iraq. This rapid review looks at the recent literature on poverty in Iraq and identifies the barriers to, and opportunities for, poverty reduction and eradication. The literature indicates that: 3.9 per cent of people in Iraq are living in extreme poverty (2012). 18.9 per cent live below ...» more


Wellbeing is advocated as a positive, more inclusive approach to development, which goes beyond a narrow focus on policy or programme objectives to comprehend the real impact on people’s lives. Wellbeing is, however, a highly contested term, with different concepts and methods producing quite different results. This briefing provides a guide to the main approaches…» more

Longitudinal social research in Ethiopia

The prominent longitudinal studies in Ethiopia, from which much of the academic and practitioner literature draws from, include: Young lives: an international study on childhood poverty involving 12,000 children in four countries (Ethiopia, India, Peru and Vietnam) over 15 years. Research priorities include nutrition, health, education and child work. Ethiopian Rural Households ...» more

Eliminating extreme poverty in Africa: Trends, policies and the role of international organizations

Zorobabel Bicaba, Zuzana Brixiová, Mthuli Ncube

This paper focuses on: (i) poverty paths in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) under different assumptions on key macroeconomic variables, that is (consumption) growth, population growth and income distribution; and (ii) national, regional and global policies that can be adopted to improve upon poverty outcomes. It explores how policies of global institutions such as the G20 can ...» more

Development as Freedom in a Digital Age: Experiences from the Rural Poor in Bolivia

Björn Sören Gigler

What impact do new information and communication technologies (ICTs) have on people living in poverty in developing countries? Can ICTs make a real difference in the lives of the poor and thus enhance their well-being? Under what conditions can information technology empower poor communities? What are some of the challenges and pitfalls facing local communities in using ...» more

What Do Indian Middle Class Attitudes to Poverty Tell Us About the Politics of Poverty Reduction?

Niheer Dasandi

What makes the middle classes oppose or support initiatives intended to lift people out of poverty, and how can the development community secure their interest in and approval of such policies? The assumption among donors, development practitioners and researchers is often that the middle class are either not interested in helping the poor, or are motivated by self-interest ...» more

Jobs, unemployment and violence

(This 10-minute presentation accompanying the reading pack was recorded at the GSDRC Seminar on Conflict and Development, London, 23 March 2015.) The notion that unemployment is a strong probable cause or motivating factor behind violence and violent conflict is remarkably pervasive in international development. It is believed that unemployment triggers participation in insurgencies, prompts people…» more

Inclusive growth

Absolute poverty has fallen substantially over the last 30 years, with most of this reduction attributable to rapid economic growth in developing countries. Yet growth often does not meet the needs of the poor. Economic growth in the absence of measures to ensure the sustained equitable distribution of its benefits has frequently perpetuated the concentration of wealth in the ...» more

What works for rural development in fragile states? Evidence from Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Yemen, Nepal and Bolivia

Schultze-Kraft, M., Rew, M., Kuss, M.

What works for rural development in fragile states and how can rural development contribute to mitigating fragility? This report highlights the major challenges rural development encounters in fragile settings. It looks at empirical evidence from five countries in South Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South America (Afghanistan, Nepal, Yemen, the Democratic ...» more

Poverty and violations of children’s right to protection in low- and middle-income countries: A review of the evidence

Rachel Marcus

Why do up to 1.5 billion children suffer physical violence every year? Why do up to 2251 million children suffer sexual violence every year? Why are 14.2 million girls every year married off to start adult lives in adolescence or before? Why are considerable numbers of young children left alone for long hours without competent adult supervision?This report examines how far and ...» more

ICT Pathways to Poverty Reduction: Empirical evidence from East and Southern Africa

Edith Ofwona Adera, Timothy M. Waema, Julian May, Ophelia Mascarenhas,, Kathleen Diga (Eds)

Do ICTs result in poverty reduction? This book looks at the links between ICTs and poverty reduction. The links are considered at three main levels: 1) access to ICTs and the relationship of such access to poverty; 2) impact of ICTs on poverty reduction; and 3) use of ICTs as potential pathways to poverty reduction. Impact is assessed both in terms of the causal relationship ...» more

To be well at heart: women’s perceptions of psychosocial wellbeing in three conflict affected countries

Martha Bragin et al.

This article presents the results of a participatory study utilising ethnographic methods to develop a phenomenological understanding of how women in three conflict-affected settings understand, experience and operationalise the term ‘psychosocial well-being’. The study was conducted in three countries (Burundi, Nepal and Uganda), where CARE Österreich (an international relief ...» more

Striving for Better Jobs: The Challenge of Informality in the Middle East and North Africa

Roberta Gatti et al.

Economic growth has been sustained for many years pre-crisis in the region, but this has not resulted in the creation of an adequate number of jobs and has succeeded, at best, in generating low-quality, informal jobs. This World Bank report addresses one margin of exclusion: informal employment and the vulnerabilities and lack of opportunities associated with it. The report ...» more

Analysing Child Poverty and Deprivation in sub-Saharan Africa: Cross Country Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis

Marlous de Milliano, Ilze Plavgo

This paper analyses multidimensional child deprivation across thirty countries in sub-Saharan Africa. The main objective of the paper is to present a direct method of child poverty measurement analysing deprivations experienced by the child. It applies the Multiple Overlapping Deprivation Analysis (MODA) methodology that measures aspects of child poverty, adapted to allow ...» more