Role of business in tackling modern slavery in supply chains

Key findings: Not much research has been done on business supply chain management and modern slavery: The available literature is extremely limited. Pressures on companies to tackle modern slavery in supply chains are increasing: These include growing consumer concerns about the issue, fears of reputational damage, the potential for companies to charge more for ‘slave ...» more

Youth unemployment and violence

This literature review looks at whether there is evidence of a causal link between youth unemployment and violence in developing countries, focusing on crime, gang violence and domestic violence. It also looks at female youth unemployment, donor programming, and areas where more research is needed. A causal link between youth unemployment and violence is widely assumed, but ...» more

Youth and jobs

When jobs are scarce it is young people who are hit the hardest as they are either unable to enter the workplace or are the first to be fired. According to the World Bank (2015), one third of the world’s 1.8 billion young people are not in employment, education or training (NEET), and only 40%…» more

Labor markets and poverty in village economies

Oriana Bandiera, Robin Burgess, Narayan Das, Selim Gulesci, Imran Rasul and Munshi Sulaiman
2016

This paper reports the results of a randomized evaluation of the nationwide roll-out of a program that transfers assets and skills to the poorest women in villages in Bangladesh, studied through a detailed labour survey that tracks over 21,000 households, drawn from the entire wealth distribution in 1,309 rural Bangladeshi villages, four times over a seven year period. The ...» more

Webinar video: Demographic shifts

The next decade will see the global population rise by 1 billion. The current youth bulge (there are an estimated 1.5 billion young people in the world today) is expected to give way to a rapidly ageing population by 2050. What does this mean for the development community? Dr Laura Camfield (UEA) and Prof Asghar Zaidi (University of…» more

Building social cohesion in post-conflict situations

The approaches covered in this report include community-driven development, job creation, social protection and education. Whilst in theory there are strong links between these and social cohesion, there is very little rigorous empirical evidence to verify these links.  More specifically, the literature highlights that: Community-driven development (CDD) programmes promote ...» more

The state of food and agriculture: social protection and agriculture – breaking the cycle of rural poverty

FAO
2015

Agriculture and social protection are fundamentally linked in the context of rural livelihoods. Social protection programmes contribute to higher household incomes and increased consumption, enhancing households’ ability to produce food.  This report shows that even relatively small transfers help the poor overcome liquidity and credit constraints, and provide insurance against ...» more

Social protection and sustainable natural resource management: initial findings and good practices from small-scale fisheries

Christophe Béné, Stephen Devereux, Keetie Roelen
2015

How does social protection and other measures reduce vulnerability and strengthen resilience among households and communities dependent on renewable natural resources?   The paper identifies and reviews the potential of social protection policies, schemes and instruments. It shows that small-scale fishers and fishworkers are typically inadequately or totally unprotected. While ...» more

Women, business and the law 2016: Getting to equal

World Bank
2015

Since 2009, Women, business and the law has collected data about legal restrictions on women’s entrepreneurship and employment in order to inform policy discussions and promote research on the linkages between the law and women’s economic opportunities. This report is the fourth in the series. The report includes data on seven indicators: accessing institutions, using ...» more

The social impact of private sector development

The private sector can have a transformational impact on peoples’ lives as a creator of jobs and producer of goods and services that poor people use. Donor agencies are paying increasing attention to how private sector development can be leveraged to support poverty reduction and sustainable, equitable and inclusive economic growth. Making use of social development thinking is ...» more

Jobs, unemployment and violence

(This 10-minute presentation accompanying the reading pack was recorded at the GSDRC Seminar on Conflict and Development, London, 23 March 2015.) The notion that unemployment is a strong probable cause or motivating factor behind violence and violent conflict is remarkably pervasive in international development. It is believed that unemployment triggers participation in insurgencies, prompts people…» more

Inclusive growth

Absolute poverty has fallen substantially over the last 30 years, with most of this reduction attributable to rapid economic growth in developing countries. Yet growth often does not meet the needs of the poor. Economic growth in the absence of measures to ensure the sustained equitable distribution of its benefits has frequently perpetuated the concentration of wealth in the ...» more

What works for rural development in fragile states? Evidence from Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Yemen, Nepal and Bolivia

Schultze-Kraft, M., Rew, M., Kuss, M.
2014

What works for rural development in fragile states and how can rural development contribute to mitigating fragility? This report highlights the major challenges rural development encounters in fragile settings. It looks at empirical evidence from five countries in South Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, Sub-Saharan Africa and South America (Afghanistan, Nepal, Yemen, the Democratic ...» more

Striving for Better Jobs: The Challenge of Informality in the Middle East and North Africa

Roberta Gatti et al.
2014

Economic growth has been sustained for many years pre-crisis in the region, but this has not resulted in the creation of an adequate number of jobs and has succeeded, at best, in generating low-quality, informal jobs. This World Bank report addresses one margin of exclusion: informal employment and the vulnerabilities and lack of opportunities associated with it. The report ...» more

Support for African Women’s Equality Rises: Education, jobs & political participation still unequal

Anyway Chingwete, Samantha Richmond, Carmen Alpin
2014

Widespread support for equality, alongside approval of most governments' attempts to empower women, suggest that a majority of Africans have embraced gender equality and reject traditional norms that hold women back. However, women continue to be disadvantaged in critical ways, especially through lack of equal education – a gap that has long-term implications for women’s ...» more

World of Work 2014: Developing with jobs

ILO
2014

Developing countries are catching up with advanced economies … The process of economic convergence between developing countries and advanced economies has gathered momentum. Between 1980 and 2011, per capita income in developing countries grew, on average, by 3.3 per cent per year – much faster than the 1.8 per cent per capita income growth recorded in advanced economies. This ...» more

Contemporary conflict analysis of Iraq

This paper notes that conflict in Iraq has become increasingly sectarian, and has affected minorities the most. Among its findings it highlights roots of the violence: Sunni alienation following the ‘sectarianisation’ of the political system; feelings of insecurity as a result of sectarian militias and the increasingly Shia make-up of the Iraqi Security Forces; and structural ...» more

Donor action on women’s employment in ASEAN countries

Donors have attempted little to improve women’s participation and conditions in the ASEAN workforce. Isolated cases highlight some findings: Success stories include donors action through: national policies (Cambodia); mandatory monitoring of working conditions (Cambodia); gender-sensitive design and evaluation of projects (Viet Nam, Cambodia); capacity development for ...» more

Stunted Growth: Why Don’t African Firms Create More Jobs?

Leonardo Iacovone, Vijaya Ramachandran,, Martin Schmidt
2014

Many countries in Africa suffer high rates of underemployment or low rates of productive employment; many also anticipate large numbers of people to enter the workforce in the near future. This paper asks the question: Are African firms creating fewer jobs than those located in other parts of the world? And, if so, why? One reason may be that weak business environments slow ...» more