Current response to persecution of Christians in the Middle East

In 2016, various political bodies, including the U.S. House of Representatives and Senate and UK Parliament, declared that the atrocities of the militant group ISIS (Islamic State in Iraq and Syria), against Christians, Yazidis, Shi’a Muslims and other religious minorities in areas under its control amount to genocide (Shea, 2016; Kraft and Manar, 2016; Ochab, 2016; USCIRF, ...» more

Good neighbours? Africans express high levels of tolerance for many, but not for all

Boniface Dulani, Gift Sambo, and Kim Yi Dionne

This report presents new findings on tolerance in Africa from Afrobarometer Round 6 surveys in 33 countries in 2014/2015. (The questions on tolerance were not asked in Algeria, Egypt, and Sudan because research partners deemed the question about tolerance for homosexuals too sensitive.) The survey asks respondents whether they would like, dislike, or be indifferent to having ...» more

Social exclusion


This publication aims to introduce some of the best literature on the definitions, understandings, causes, and impact of social exclusion, as well as how exclusion can be measured and addressed by governments, civil society actors and international organisations. The guide was written by Seema Khan (GSDRC), in close collaboration with Professor Frances Stewart (Centre for ...» more

Contemporary conflict analysis of Iraq

This paper notes that conflict in Iraq has become increasingly sectarian, and has affected minorities the most. Among its findings it highlights roots of the violence: Sunni alienation following the ‘sectarianisation’ of the political system; feelings of insecurity as a result of sectarian militias and the increasingly Shia make-up of the Iraqi Security Forces; and structural ...» more

Gender, Rights and Religion at the Crossroads

Mariz Tadros

How has the new approach to religion since 9/11 impacted on efforts to address women’s rights? How has it affected women’s day to day realities? This study examines various forms of instrumentalisation of religion, gender and human rights, against the backdrop of today’s volatile political context, the rise of identity politics and increased economic inequality and deprivation. ...» more

Understanding Sectarianism in MENA countries

There is some debate about how sectarianism, particularly as it relates to the Middle East is commonly conceptualised. For many in the Middle East, it has come to be defined as the process of ascribing political and social claims or rights on the basis of religious adherence and belonging. However, scholars stress the importance of developing an appropriate conceptual framework ...» more

Ethnicity, Religion and the State in Ghana and Nigeria: Perceptions from the Street

Arnim Langer, Unoha Ukiwo

What can social surveys tell us about perceptions of ethnicity, religion and the state in Ghana and Nigeria? This working paper from the Centre for Research on Inequality, Human Security and Ethnicity (CRISE) analyses survey data on how people see their own identities and their perceptions of the domination of state institutions by particular ethnic or religious groups. The ...» more

Inclusion and Exclusion in South Asia: The Role of Religion

Rajeev Bhargava

What forms of exclusion related to religion occur in South Asia and how can these be addressed? This paper from the United Nations Development Programme examines the role of religion in inclusion and exclusion in India, Pakistan and Bangladesh. A South Asian society with a secular state such as India is most likely to be inclusive or to have potential for inclusion. Conversely, ...» more

Democracy and Ethno-religious Conflict in Iraq

A Wimmer

The seeds of democracy may have difficulty germinating in the sandy soils of Iraq where central political institutions have crumbled. Is Western-style democracy feasible in the current political landscape? What can be done to minimise the ethno-religious elements likely to be unleashed by the democratisation process? Compiled for Survival, this paper explores the rise of the ...» more

Religion, Identity and Politics in Tanzania

Bruce E Heilman, Paul J Kaiser

Will Tanzania become a battleground in what Samuel Huntington called ‘The Clash of Civilisations’? Tanzania has large populations of Christians and Muslims. It is an impoverished country, and this places a strain on national social cohesion. However, this paper, for Third World Quarterly, argues that, although tensions are on the rise, a combination of cross-cutting cleavages, ...» more