Class / caste

State of the world’s minorities and indigenous peoples 2016

Minority Rights Group

While economics and politics often dominate discussions about minority and indigenous communities’ rights, culture is no less important. A right to culture is central to the enjoyment of a range of rights, from education and health to language and livelihoods. However, even in contexts where cultural rights are well established, they rely on a constant reaffirmation of ...» more

Social exclusion


This publication aims to introduce some of the best literature on the definitions, understandings, causes, and impact of social exclusion, as well as how exclusion can be measured and addressed by governments, civil society actors and international organisations. The guide was written by Seema Khan (GSDRC), in close collaboration with Professor Frances Stewart (Centre for ...» more

Strengthening social justice to address intersecting inequalities

Veronica Paz Arauco, Haris Gazdar, Paula Hevia-Pacheco, Naila Kabeer, Amanda Lenhardt, Syeda Quratulain Masood, Haider Naqvi, Nandini Nayak, Andrew Norton, Nidhi Sadana Sabharwal, Elisa Scalise, Andrew Shepherd, Deepak Thapa, Sukhadeo Thorat, D. Hien Tran

This report addresses the significance of deep identity based forms of exclusion, which constrain the life chances of affected social groups. It explores policies and programmes that address these intersecting inequalities in a group of countries that have made significant efforts and improvements, as a way of indicating what is possible in this difficult terrain. The report ...» more

The Role of Gender and Caste in Climate Adaptation Strategies in Nepal

Nisha Onta, Bernadette P. Resurreccion

This study analyses the situation of Dalit and Lama households in the Humla district of Nepal. Their livelihoods have been adversely affected by a shift in the monsoon season, a decrease in snowfall and longer dry periods. The study finds that Dalits are pushing caste boundaries, but that gender boundaries are remaining resilient even during crisis. Gendered, and caste-related, ...» more

Rescuing Exclusion from the Poverty Debate: Group Disparities and Social Transformation in India

Arjan de Haan

This paper examines how India's Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes categories are applied in poverty analysis and social policy, including in India's targeted poverty programmes and BPL (Below Poverty Line) Census. It finds that, while Indian poverty debates highlight the severe inequalities between social groups, they pay insufficient attention to the nature of exclusion. ...» more

Timepass: Youth, class, and time among unemployed young men in India

Through an analysis of unemployed young men in Uttar Pradesh, this article provides an ethnographic perspective on the relationship between economic reform in India and the insecurities of marginalised young men. It informs broader understandings of the temporal and spatial insecurities of young people marginalised by processes of neoliberal economic change, Exploring how ...» more

Urban Labour Market Discrimination

Sukhadeo Thorat, Paul Attewell, Firdaus Fatima Rizvi

Do caste and religion influence a graduate’s employment opportunities in India’s private sector? This paper from the Indian Institute of Dalit Studies examines the prevalence of discrimination in the job application processes of modern private sector enterprises. It finds that discriminatory processes operate even at the first stage of the application process. Caste favouritism ...» more

Discrimination and Children’s Nutritional Status in India

Sukhadeo Thorat, Nidhi Sadana

What is the connection between caste and health status in India? This paper, published by the Institute of Development Studies Bulletin, argues that discrimination and exclusion associated with “untouchability” may play a role in the poor health of lower caste individuals. Particularly in the nutrition domain, lower caste children have significantly lower indicators of health ...» more

Inclusion or Exclusion? Emerging Effects of Middle-Class Citizen Participation on Delhi’s Urban Poor

Poulomi Chakrabarti

What are the implications for Delhi’s urban poor of increased middle-class participation in formal politics? The Bhagidari programme sought to institutionalise citizen participation in governance by involving Residents Welfare Associations (RWAs) in local level decision-making. It was restricted to middle-class areas. This Institute of Development Studies (IDS) paper explores ...» more

Social exclusion in Bangladesh

A large portion of the existing research on social exclusion in Bangladesh focuses on women (this is dealt with in a separate GSDRC Helpdesk Research Report on ‘Gender Inequality in Bangladesh’). Much of the remaining research focuses on ethnic minorities (indigenous peoples), who are concentrated in rural areas and variably excluded from social, political, and economic arenas. ...» more

Gender, Caste and Ethnic Exclusion in Nepal: Following the Policy Process from Analysis to Action

L Bennett

Gender, caste and ethnicity-based social exclusion is deeply embedded in Nepalese society. This draft paper, presented at the World Bank Conference on New Frontiers in Social Policy, examines the joint policy reform initiative of the World Bank and DFID to address the persistent legacy of caste, ethnic and gender-based exclusion in Nepal. In order to move from policy-level ...» more

Caste, Ethnicity and Exclusion in South Asia: The Role of Affirmative Action Policies in Building Inclusive Societies

D Sheth

Social inequality and exclusion in South Asia originates in the caste system. What is the region’s experience with affirmative action (AA) policies in addressing social exclusion? Can affirmative action help rebuild inclusive societies? This background paper for UNDP’s Human Development Report 2004 outlines how the outcome of AA policies in South Asia has depended on each ...» more

Caste Discrimination: A Global Concern

Human Rights Watch

How does caste discrimination continue to inflict cruelty and exploitation on communities worldwide? What measures should governments implement to end these discriminatory practices? This report from Human Rights Watch surveys the inequalities and human rights abuses that lower-caste groups continue to experience in South and East Asia and West Africa. It argues that ...» more