Myanmar’s stabilisation challenges

The communities currently most at risk of, and affected by, conflict and violence are those living in the Kokang Self-Administered Zone and in other parts of northern Shan State. Other affected communities include those in Kachin, Rakhine, Chin and Kayin States. The community most affected by the threat of forced displacement is the Rohingya, a Muslim ethnic group, in Rakhine ...» more

Sustainable livelihoods in Ugandan refugee settings

Uganda has hosted refugees from neighbouring conflict-affect countries for several decades. Some research suggests that self-employed refugees are somewhat more successful than employed refugees, but there is little concrete evidence from Uganda that current refugee livelihood strategies are successfully fostering self-reliance and sustainable solutions. Most of the available ...» more

Effects of respect for international humanitarian law on displacement

Much of the literature agrees that violence against civilians is the primary driver of displacement. However, while a few causalities can be considered established, authors frequently note that findings are either correlations (rather than causalities), or that the causalities need clarification. High-quality literature on population movements has long demonstrated that, even ...» more

Voices of refugees: Information and communication needs of refugees in Greece and Germany

BBC Media Action

How do refugees access and use information? The millions of people using unofficial migration routes to reach northern European countries often cannot get the reliable information they need to make decisions and survive. This report examines the communication behaviours and priority information needs of refugees. It finds that a lack of online or mobile connectivity and limited ...» more

Iraq’s displacement crisis: security and protection

Lahib Higel

The humanitarian emergency in Iraq has become more severe over the past two years as the armed conflict continues: statistics suggest there are 3.2 million IDPs in the country and more than 8 million people in need of humanitarian assistance. This report provides an up-to-date overview of the human rights situation of IDPs in Iraq since the emergence of ISIS, highlighting a ...» more

Women and girls in forced and protracted displacement

There is general consensus in this grey and academic literature on the vulnerabilities faced by women and girls in forced and protracted displacement, although less is known about the opportunities they may have and the long-term impacts. Much of the recent evidence available focuses on displaced populations in Europe and countries neighbouring Syria. There is more of a focus ...» more

Addressing vulnerability? Cash transfer programming and protection outcomes for out-of-camp Syrian refugees

Paula Armstrong and Karen Jacobsen

This report analyses the successes and shortcomings of a Danish Refugee Council (DRC) implemented e-card programme for out-of-camp Syrian refugees in southern Turkey. While the programme was impressively broad and has helped provide food security for tens of thousands of Syrian refugees in southern Turkey, there are several areas for improvement.  The report focuses on: the ...» more

Protracted displacement: uncertain paths to self-reliance in exile

Nicholas Crawford, John Cosgrave, Simone Haysom & Nadine Walicki

This report maps the global state of protracted displacement, examining patterns and trends in numbers, geographic spread and funding. It notes that at the end of 2014, half of all refugees had been in exile for over ten years. Displacement is increasingly an urban and dispersed phenomenon, with settled camps becoming the exception. Seven countries – Syria, Iran, Pakistan, ...» more

Sustainable refugee return: triggers, constraints and lessons on addressing the development challenges of forced displacement

Niels Harild, Asger Christensen, Roger Zetter

What are the conditions that influence decisions by refugees in protracted displacement on returning home? The study illustrates the complex contexts within which refugee return, and international assistance with refugee return and reintegration, take place. It argues that the overarching framework envisaged by the UNHCR has not been fully realised, and that there needs to be ...» more

Migration trends across the Mediterranean: Connecting the dots

Altai Consulting

Who are the men and women, and increasingly children, who make the journey from their home countries across vast expanses of desert and eventually across the sea? What are the triggers, patterns, and push and pull factors shaping their decisions? This report draws on unique and in-depth qualitative research conducted in countries of the southern and northern shores of the ...» more

Refugee return in protracted refugee situations

Voluntary repatriation/return is seen as one of the durable solutions to protracted refugee situations and is the ‘preferred’ solution of the international community. Successful or sustainable return processes require the reintegration of refugees, which can be complicated by their protracted refugee experience and conditions in the country of origin. Evidence from case ...» more

The impact of Syrian refugees on the Turkish labour market

Ximena V. Del Carpio; Mathis Wagner

1.8 million Syrian people have found refuge in Turkey. Drawing on newly available data, this paper assesses the impact of refugee inflows on Turkish labour market conditions. It finds that these inflows change the level and composition of Turkish employment with particularly negative effects on Turkish workers in informal jobs (particularly women), the low educated, and those ...» more

Refugee innovation: Humanitarian innovation that starts with communities

Alexander Betts; Louise Bloom; and Nina Weaver

How can people’s own creativity and ideas be supported rather than undermined by expensive ‘top-down’ innovations brought in from the developed world? This paper highlights how people engage in creative problem-solving in the most challenging environments and calls for a more people-centred approach to humanitarian innovation. Case studies illustrate how people’s creativity and ...» more

Disaster-related displacement risk: Measuring the risk and addressing its drivers

Justin Ginnetti, with Chris Lavell, Travis Franck

This report applies the concept of risk to disaster-related displacement and quantifies human displacement risk around the world. It reflects an awareness of the need to see disasters as primarily social, rather than natural, phenomena. This view acknowledges that humans can act and take decisions to reduce the likelihood of a disaster occurring or, at the very least, to reduce ...» more

Refugee, IDP and host community radicalisation

Socioeconomic conditions: In some circumstances, poor socioeconomic conditions (e.g. impoverishment, unemployment, lack of access to services and infrastructure, overcrowded living conditions) may make it more likely for refugees/IDPs to become radicalised. However, Lischer (2005) finds instead that there is generally little evidence to support the connection between particular ...» more

Restrictions on humanitarian aid to refugees

The evidence base for this question is extremely weak. Very little of the literature uncovered during this rapid review engages directly or in depth with the question of the impact of such aid restrictions. Even fewer analyse how the humanitarian community has responded to these restrictions. A related debate is ongoing around aid provisions to urban refugees and the ...» more

Conflict Dimensions of International Assistance to Refugees from Syria in Lebanon

Sibylle Stamm

This discussion paper explores a selected number of key areas of potential interaction of international assistance provided to refugees from Syria with conflict dynamics in Lebanon. It focuses on international assistance delivered inside Lebanon and does not cover aid programmes destined for Syria or other neighbouring countries. It aims to facilitate a discussion among policy ...» more

Out of the Frying Pan into the Fire? Migration from Fragile States to Fragile States

Anke Hoeffler

Fragile states contributed 18 million migrants and 8 million refugees in 2000. More than 20% of these migrants and more than half of the refugees settle in other fragile states. Thus, migration is likely to be both a consequence and a possible cause of conflict and fragility. This paper asks why people from fragile states would want to move to another fragile state. Is it ...» more

Writing the ‘Other’ into humanitarian discourse: framing theory and practice in South–South humanitarian responses to forced displacement

Julia Pacitto, Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

Although Southern-led development initiatives have enjoyed increasing attention by academics in recent years, there remains a relative paucity of research on South-South humanitarian responses. This paper investigates South-South humanitarian action because of the potential it has to demand a radical reconceptualization of dominant humanitarian theory. A preliminary mapping ...» more

Democratic Republic of the Congo internally displaced persons and refugees’ relations with host communities

This is a relatively unexplored area with the literature limited mainly to NGO reports. However a few studies have looked at the questions and find that the reasons IDPs/refugees choose to stay with host communities are a combination of factors relating to their physical, emotional and spiritual security, including: They have a negative perception of the conditions in camps and ...» more