Refugees/IDPs

Leveraging change to policies, laws and practices in refugee hosting countries

This rapid review synthesises data from academic, policy and NGO sources on influencing government polices on refugees, with a particular focus on Rohingya in Bangladesh. However, it must be noted that this is an under researched topic with only the work of Jacobsen (1996) focusing specifically on the subject. Additionally, there are very few successful cases in the literature ...» more

Wastewater Treatment Plants in rapid mass displacement situations

This rapid review report has identified the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) options used in emergency settings, with decentralised wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) and mobile wastewater treatment units performing most effectively and with minimal costs.  Examples are taken from refugee camps and internally displaced people (IDP) settlements due to the Iraq war, the ...» more

Rohingya refugee crisis: impact on Bangladeshi politics

The huge Rohingya refugee influx into Bangladesh is seen in the literature as likely to strengthen the position of the Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina and her Awami League party. However, there are concerns that it will lead to further authoritarianism in the country, as well as fuel extremist sentiment. The Bangladeshi public are generally supportive of the ...» more

Waste management in situations of rapid, mass displacement

Solid waste and faecal sludge management in situations of rapid mass displacement are important to public health and providing for a better environment. Despite this, both have been neglected in WASH programmes, which tend to have a focus on water. However increasing efforts are being made to find solutions to challenges in solid waste and faecal sludge management in difficult ...» more

Environmental Impact Assessments in refugee crises

Although much of the literature found by this rapid review emphasises the necessity of including environmental considerations into the planning of mass displacement camps, and the role of environmental impact assessments (EIAs), there is little publically available literature on the assessments carried out, and the quality of these. The literature specifically highlights the ...» more

Lessons from the coordination of refugee responses

The literature review found little evidence of successes in coordination of refugee responses involving multiple lead agencies. Rather, it identified some clear lessons to emerge from recent experience of refugee response coordination, in particular from the Syrian refugee crisis in Lebanon. While host governments are assigned primary responsibility for refugee responses in ...» more

Innovative WASH options in situations of severe overcrowding

A rapid review of the literature has found a selection of innovative WASH options available for situations of severe population overcrowding and limited spaces.  Case study information was collated from African, Middle Eastern, South Asian and Caribbean countries.   As requested, a number of experts were consulted for their opinion where there was a lack of project evaluations ...» more

Managing risks in securitisation of refugees

This rapid review synthesises data from academic, policy and NGO sources on the securitisation of refugees, with a particular focus on Rohingya in Bangladesh. Although not referred to as refugees in Bangladesh, this report refers to Rohingya fleeing Myanmar as refugees. There is limited research on managing the risk of securitisation of refugees, rather the focus tends to be on ...» more

Effectiveness of various refugee settlement approaches

This review of the effectiveness of different approaches to refugee settlement shows that the ‘traditional’ approach of setting up refugee camps is ineffective in many respects - particularly in terms of promoting self-reliance - and hence to be avoided. The recommendation in policy circles is now for alternatives to camps that provide economic opportunities to refugees, allow ...» more

Effectiveness of programmes supporting migrants in Africa

Despite a growing body of research on migration and development, the literature highlights the limited empirical evidence available on the effectiveness of migration programmes. The aid-spending departments of the UK government are in the process of identifying how UK aid contributes to tackling the “root causes of mass migration” and developing new, targeted programmes. A ...» more

Emergency humanitarian response to longer-term development in refugee crises

This report provides a rapid literature review of the evidence on emergency humanitarian response to longer-term development in refugee crises. While the scope of the report did not allow for complex judgements to be made about the quality of the body of evidence, or of the strength of individual pieces of evidence, an evidence table is provided in Annex A to enable the reader ...» more

Sustainable livelihoods for refugees in protracted crises

Much of the literature in this area acknowledges the widespread constraints to livelihoods development in refugee settings. These include a disabling policy environment, low levels of social capital, poverty, and weak baseline levels of training and skills. Measures to support self-sufficiency are often severely hampered by restricted freedom of movement, weak tailoring of ...» more

Refugees and encampment

This helpdesk report discusses the important question of shifting policy on refugees from encampment to other models. It particularly focuses on what contexts, and in response to what drivers and arguments, have host countries shifted from an encampment to a more relaxed refugee policy regime. Several examples of governments moving from encampment to other methods are included ...» more

Sustainable livelihoods in Ugandan refugee settings

Uganda has hosted refugees from neighbouring conflict-affect countries for several decades. Some research suggests that self-employed refugees are somewhat more successful than employed refugees, but there is little concrete evidence from Uganda that current refugee livelihood strategies are successfully fostering self-reliance and sustainable solutions. Most of the available ...» more

Effects of respect for international humanitarian law on displacement

Much of the literature agrees that violence against civilians is the primary driver of displacement. However, while a few causalities can be considered established, authors frequently note that findings are either correlations (rather than causalities), or that the causalities need clarification. High-quality literature on population movements has long demonstrated that, even ...» more

Voices of refugees: Information and communication needs of refugees in Greece and Germany

BBC Media Action
2016

How do refugees access and use information? The millions of people using unofficial migration routes to reach northern European countries often cannot get the reliable information they need to make decisions and survive. This report examines the communication behaviours and priority information needs of refugees. It finds that a lack of online or mobile connectivity and limited ...» more

Iraq’s displacement crisis: security and protection

Lahib Higel
2016

The humanitarian emergency in Iraq has become more severe over the past two years as the armed conflict continues: statistics suggest there are 3.2 million IDPs in the country and more than 8 million people in need of humanitarian assistance. This report provides an up-to-date overview of the human rights situation of IDPs in Iraq since the emergence of ISIS, highlighting a ...» more

Women and girls in forced and protracted displacement

There is general consensus in this grey and academic literature on the vulnerabilities faced by women and girls in forced and protracted displacement, although less is known about the opportunities they may have and the long-term impacts. Much of the recent evidence available focuses on displaced populations in Europe and countries neighbouring Syria. There is more of a focus ...» more

Addressing vulnerability? Cash transfer programming and protection outcomes for out-of-camp Syrian refugees

Paula Armstrong and Karen Jacobsen
2015

This report analyses the successes and shortcomings of a Danish Refugee Council (DRC) implemented e-card programme for out-of-camp Syrian refugees in southern Turkey. While the programme was impressively broad and has helped provide food security for tens of thousands of Syrian refugees in southern Turkey, there are several areas for improvement.  The report focuses on: the ...» more

Protracted displacement: uncertain paths to self-reliance in exile

Nicholas Crawford, John Cosgrave, Simone Haysom & Nadine Walicki
2015

This report maps the global state of protracted displacement, examining patterns and trends in numbers, geographic spread and funding. It notes that at the end of 2014, half of all refugees had been in exile for over ten years. Displacement is increasingly an urban and dispersed phenomenon, with settled camps becoming the exception. Seven countries – Syria, Iran, Pakistan, ...» more