Post conflict reconstruction

Libyan political economy

Much has changed in Libya since April 2014. However, Libya remains highly unstable and divided along multiple fracture lines, with a multitude of armed and non-armed groups. Given the fluidity of relations between these groups, literature on the country situation becomes quickly outdated. Libya has three rival claimants to power: a reconvened General National Congress (GNC) ...» more


What is stabilisation? Stabilisation efforts have become a common policy component of intervention in conflict response throughout the world. In recent years, there have been significant stabilisation interventions in places such as the Western Balkans, Haiti and Mali, among others. The concept of stabilisation, understood as the requirement to meet basic humanitarian and development needs…» more

United they fall: Why the international community should not promote military integration after civil war.

Ronald R. Krebs

Civil war participants, scholars, transnational civil society, and international governmental organizations believe that military integration significantly reduces the risk of a society’s relapse into civil war. However, other than a few scattered case studies and some contradictory aggregate data analyses, there has been little theoretical or empirical investigation about what ...» more

Inclusive transitions framework

Seth Kaplan & Mark Freeman

Transitions are the critical moments where fragile states can transform their social and political dynamics by pursuing more inclusive and cohesive practices. This publication argues that an inclusive approach offers the only realistic way to transform the relationships, institutions and dynamics that have troubled these countries. It draws on past experiences of ...» more

Multi-agency stabilisation operations

While there is as yet limited empirical evidence of what works best in multi-agency – or ‘whole-of-government’ – approaches to stabilisation, the literature does identify some lessons learned and principles of good practice. These include: Overcoming common challenges: establishing transparent processes to identify and manage tensions and trade-offs between neutral humanitarian ...» more

The UK Government’s Approach to Stabilisation (2014)

FCO, MOD, DFID and Stabilisation Unit

This document outlines the UK Government’s Approach to Stabilisation. It explains why and when Her Majesty’s Government (HMG) engages in Stabilisation and sets out how the stabilisation approach links to other tools and approaches which HMG uses in situations of violent conflict.This document supports the strategic and policy framework comprising HMG’s National Security ...» more

Fragile Reforms: World Bank and Asian Development Bank financing in fragile and conflict-affected situations

Monica Stephen

Drawing from research into the delivery of five bank-financed projects covering infrastructure and other sectors, this study highlights a range of insights and opportunities to enhance how the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approach project financing in fragile and conflict-affected situations.The study documents how conflict-sensitive approaches are and are ...» more

The Role of Information and Communication Technologies in Postconflict Reconstruction

Tim Kelly, David Souter

The report examines how policy-makers, the donor community and the private sector have prioritised and sequenced ICT initiatives in the aftermath of conflict. In addition, the report proposes a conceptual framework to understand how ICTs can contribute to improving service delivery and assisting with nation-building. In this summary report and a series of country case studies, ...» more

Towards effective violence mitigation: Transforming political settlements

Markus Schultze-Kraft, Scott Hinkle

This paper presents evidence from four case studies suggesting that contrary to the early post-Cold War accounts of ‘barbarism’ and ‘senseless bloodshed’ – the violence that can be observed in many countries and locales today is about something.The studies were carried out in Nigeria (Niger Delta), Sierra Leone, Egypt and Kenya (Marsabit County). Analysis of these studies shows ...» more

Women in Peace and Security through United Nations Security Resolution 1325: Literature Review, Content Analysis of National Action Plans, and Implementation

Barbara Miller, Milad Pournik,, Aisling Swaine

This Working Paper looks at the Women, Peace and Security agenda as laid out in UNSCR 1325 and in six following Security Council Resolutions to assess progress in the past decade and a half since its adoption in 2000. An extensive desk study of the existing literature was conducted, as well as a detailed content analysis of 40 of the 42 existing 1325 National Action Plans ...» more

The Economic Costs of Civil War: Synthetic Counterfactual Evidence and the Effects of Ethnic Fractionalization

Stefano Costalli, Luigi Moretti, Costantino Pischedda

There is a consensus that civil wars entail enormous economic costs, but reliable estimates are lacking, due to the endogenous relationship between violence and socio-economic conditions. This paper measures the economic consequences of civil wars with the synthetic control method, identifying appropriate counterfactuals for assessing the national-level economic impact of civil ...» more

Fast-Track Institution Building in Conflict-Affected Countries? Insights from Recent Field Experiments

Elisabeth King, Cyrus Samii

This article synthesises evidence from four recent ‘community-driven development’ field experiments in countries affected by violent conflict. Conflict-affected settings are presumed to combine extraordinary need and opportunity for building institutions. The substantive and methodological consistency of the field experiments (Afghanistan, DRC, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) ...» more

When Does Service Delivery Improve the Legitimacy of a Fragile or Conflict-Affected State?

Claire Mcloughlin

Understanding the key sources of legitimacy available to a state, and whether and how external aid interventions might seek to influence them, is a rapidly growing area of concern for development agencies. Received wisdom holds that providing vital public services – like health, education, water and sanitation – is likely to enhance state legitimacy, especially in fragile or ...» more

Key actors, dynamics and issues of Libyan political economy

The scene of actors in Libya is highly fragmented, localised and fluid. The main division seems to have been between forces that support continued changes (‘pro-revolution’) and others that do not (‘anti-revolution’). Community actors: - Geographic communities. Beyond differences between Cyrenaica, Tripolitana and Fezzan, local communities have been the fundamental actors. ...» more

Rural road (re)construction: Transport and rural livelihoods in the conflict-affected and fragile state environment of South Kivu

Adriaan Ferf, Dorothea Hilhorst, Murhega Mashanda

This paper reports on a study in South Kivu Province in the DRC, which is part of the Secure Livelihoods Research Consortium (SLRC) research programme. The programme in the DRC includes two surveys in years 2012 and 2015. The surveys explore people’s views about the legitimacy of the state and how these are influenced by livelihoods status, access to social services and ...» more

Undercurrents of Violence: Why Sierra Leone’s Political Settlement is not Working

Jeremy Allouche

Sierra Leone’s current political settlement is highly influenced by the externally imposed peace agreement that ended the civil war in 2001. Prior to this, there had been several unsuccessful attempts at establishing a new political settlement between the country’s various elites. Following the attacks by Revolutionary United Front (RUF) soldiers on UN peacekeeping forces in ...» more

Evidence of impact of emergency cash transfers on gender and protection

Key messages: The major trends and gaps in the evidence in this report are: On the whole, ‘gender’ is used to refer to women. More recent papers include more analysis of how CTs impact men, especially on if they find it disempowering for women to be favoured as beneficiaries. Gender analysis is not deeply ingrained into emergency CT programme evaluation. Many papers include a ...» more