Natural resource management

Economic drivers and effects of the illegal wildlife trade in Sub Saharan Africa

The drivers behind the illegal wildlife trade (IWT) in Sub Saharan Africa are varied and complex; varying over time and from one location or sector to another, and depending on the type of commodities and crime involved. Therefore caution should be taken when discussing these drivers. Broadly, the main economic drivers behind the IWT in Sub Saharan Africa include: increasing ...» more

Meaningful community engagement in the extractive industries

Emma Wilson; Sarah Best; Emma Blackmore; Saule Ospanova

What is the relationship between extractive industry projects and the local communities living in close proximity to such projects? Stakeholder engagement is central to extractive industry companies securing a social licence to operate. While there is lots of guidance on how to do stakeholder engagement well, this paper draws attention to the major implementation challenges ...» more

The politics of governing oil effectively: A comparative study of two new oil-rich states in Africa

Sam Hickey, Abdul-Gafaru Abdulai, Angelo Izama and Giles Mohan

This paper challenges the mainstream understanding that the quality of institutions within resource-rich countries is the key to how successfully they will manage to avoid the ‘resource curse’. While this understanding would expect democratic Ghana to more effectively and accountably manage its oil than semi-authoritarian Uganda, the findings of this paper suggest otherwise. ...» more

Fossil fuels are dead, long live fossil fuels: Botswana’s options for economic diversification.

Ross Harvey

Botswana is at a critical historical juncture. It has enjoyed a stable democracy since 1965 and strong, quality economic growth for the last few decades.  However, the diamond revenues on which the country depends are likely to decline in the near future. This report examines how Botswana can best harness it's ample fossil fuel supply for regional energy security at the least ...» more

Resource discovery and conflict in Africa: what do the data show?

Rabah Arezki, Sambit Bhattacharyya & Nemera Mamo

Africa is often viewed as the prime location for natural resource driven conflict. The volume of research on this topic is sizeable. Yet establishing causality remains a challenge. This paper uses geocoded data on oil and mineral discoveries to study the effect of natural resources on conflict at the local level (1946-2008). It seeks to fill the gap on research which has used ...» more

Natural Resources and Conflict: A Guide for Mediation Practitioners

United Nations Department of Political Affairs and United Nations Environment Programme

Mediation has been underutilized by the international system in addressing disputes over natural resources, for three main reasons. First, issues in these conflicts tend to be very technical in nature and, as such, require that mediators themselves have extensive technical expertise or have access to it. In many places, such specialized knowledge is either not available or not ...» more

Women and Natural Resources: Unlocking the Peacebuilding Potential

Adrienne Stork, Cassidy Travis, Silja Halle

What is the relationship between women and natural resources in conflict-affected settings? This report discusses how the management of natural resources can be used to enhance women’s engagement and empowerment in peacebuilding processes. Part I of the report examines the relationship between women and natural resources in peacebuilding contexts, reviewing key issues across ...» more

Stakeholder effectiveness in natural resource management

Countries that are rich in natural resources, both renewable resources such as forests and fisheries, and non-renewable resources such as oil and minerals, have not produced more positive development outcomes than non-resource rich countries. To improve development outcomes and avert several types of harmful effects – often grouped together and termed the ‘resource curse’ – ...» more

Strengthening Capacity for Conflict-Sensitive Natural Resource Management


This Guidance Note focuses on the role of natural resources in triggering, escalating or sustaining violent conflict. Its aim is to provide practical guidance on the role that the UN and EU can play in early warning and assessment, structural conflict prevention (long-term measures) and direct conflict prevention (short-term measures). It is meant to provide a combination of ...» more

Natural resource exploitation and peacebuilding

Natural resource exploitation has been extensively analysed as a potential source of conflict and a constraint on peace and stability. Studies have continued to demonstrate how ineffective or inequitable arrangements for resource extraction can reignite or exacerbate conflict, perpetuating social and economic grievances and horizontal inequalities. There appears to be ...» more

Women’s control of productive natural resources

This report looks at women’s access to and control of natural resources, especially water and forests. While it does not specifically look at women’s access to land, access to other natural resources are strongly linked to ownership and control of land (IFAD 2007; FAO 2007). As women continue to face restrictions on land ownership and control over land due to socially ...» more

Political Economy and Governance in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

This report is based on some of the recent literature on governance and political economy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). It should be read in conjunction with the helpdesk research report on ‘New Literature on Conflict in the DRC’, which includes a section on political issues. The report outlines the following key governance and political economy issues discussed in ...» more

Impact of ‘Resource Curse’ Mitigation

Initiatives to address the resource curse vary in the harms they address and in whether they operate at a national or trans-national level. They include attempts to: reduce corruption through the Extractive Industry Transparency Initiative (EITI); counteract the ‘Dutch Disease’ using Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs); curb funding sources for militia through the Kimberly Process ...» more

Resource Management and Conflict

There is an extensive literature dedicated to examining the links between the abundance of mineral resources and the incidence and duration of violent conflict. While the ‘resource curse’ thesis has become well-known, claims that an abundance of natural resources increases the likelihood of conflict have been widely disputed.However, beyond the case study literature, there is ...» more

Natural Resource Revenue for Service Delivery

There is very little literature which addresses the impact of natural resource revenues on the quality of service delivery per se. The evidence that does exist suggests large differences among natural resource dependent developing countries in terms of the effects of resource wealth on social expenditures. There is more consensus on those factors which hinder positive outcomes ...» more

Donor Approaches to Extractive Industries

Donor approaches to extractives management fall broadly under two categories: (1) individual donor strategies; and (2) multi-stakeholder initiatives (in particular the Extractive Industries Transparency Initiative (EITI)). Before EITI was established in 2002, donor strategies on EI were scarce. Donors tended to conduct their work in isolation and principally through funding ...» more

Impact of Participatory Forest Management on Vulnerability and Livelihood Assets of Forest-Dependent Communities in Northern Pakistan

Tanvir Ali, Munir Ahmad, Babar Shahbaz,, Abid Suleri

During the past two decades, several (donor-funded) participatory forest management projects were implemented in the forest-rich North-West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan, but these projects could not reduce the high rate of deforestation in the province. In 1996 the Asian Development Bank funded the Forestry Sector Project (FSP) in NWFP, which has institutionalized the ...» more