Voice & participation in politics

Implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 in Libya

The literature on gender equality, development and security suggests that sustainable peace and successful long-term development are linked to gender equality policies (Selimovic & Larsson, 2014: 5). UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (SCR 1325), approved in 2000, reaffirms the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, peace-building, and in ...» more

Urban governance

Seoul sunrise panorama

What is urban governance and why does it matter? How can key urban policy issues be addressed? This topic guide introduces the literature on urban governance and its relationship to growth and poverty reduction. It considers the key debates and issues, and sets out some implications for practice on specific urban governance challenges. ...» more

State-society relations and citizenship

2° ATO Belo Horizonte

State-society relations, citizenship and socio-political cohesion are areas of great importance to statebuilding and peacebuilding and are crucial to an integrated approach. State-society relations are defined by DFID as ‘interactions between state institutions and societal groups to negotiate how public authority is exercised and how it can be influenced by people. They are ...» more

Citizen voice and action

No democratic government can afford not to listen to the voices of its citizens. Why? It is a matter of common sense; involving people in discussions about how to tackle a problem that affects their lives is much more likely to generate successful ways to address the issue. Further, if opportunities are made to formulate…» more

When does ICT-enabled citizen voice lead to government responsiveness?

Tiago Peixoto and Jonathan Fox

This article reviews evidence on the use of 23 information and communications technology (ICT) platforms to project citizen voice to improve public service delivery. This study begins with a conceptual framework intended to clarify the different links in the causal chain in between ICT-enabled opportunities to express voice (platforms) and institutional responses. In other ...» more

Mobile phone and social media interventions for youth development outcomes

Young people are often ‘first adopters’ of new technologies, particularly broadcast technologies such as mobile phones. The upsurge in ICT usage has had a direct impact on increasing civic engagement among youth, providing new avenues through which they are informed, shape opinions, organise, collaborate and take action. A number of barriers and challenges remain that must ...» more

Media, discussion and attitudes in fragile contexts

Chris Snow and Will Taylor

What is the relationship between media programming, political discussion and conflict-related attitudes? This paper tests the hypothesis that balanced and inclusive media-induced discussion can be a positive force in mitigating attitudes associated with conflict. It explores how discussions programmes – where a diverse audience, representing the whole of society, is engaged in ...» more

NIMD Country Programme evaluation

Laure-Hélène Piron

The Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy commissioned an institutional evaluation of the period 2011–2014, with a focus on three country programmes (Georgia, Guatemala and Mali). The first objective of the evaluation was to assess the extent to which NIMD achieved results in the period 2011–2014. The second objective was to assess the extent to which the NIMD ...» more

Inclusive institutions

The term ‘inclusive institutions’ does not refer to a clearly defined field of theory or policy within international development, but to a normative sensibility that stands in favour of inclusion as the benchmark against which institutions can be judged and also promoted. Inclusive institutions are usually portrayed as both a means through which inclusive development…» more

Increasing youth participation in accountability mechanisms

The literature argues that empowering, organising, capacity-building and partnering with young people can contribute to good governance and improved accountability of governments (DANIDA, 2007; UNDP, 2006; Walton, 2010). To this end, governments, donors and NGOs have supported a variety of interventions that encourage youth participation both formally and informally. The extent ...» more

Women’s voice and leadership in decision-making: Assessing the evidence

Pilar Domingo, Rebecca Holmes, Tam O’Neil, Nicola Jones, Kate Bird, Anna Larson, Elizabeth Presler-Marshall, Craig Valters

This report reviews the global evidence on the processes of change that enable women to have substantive voice and leadership in decision-making. It answers two core research questions: what are the enabling factors for women and girls’ voice, leadership and access to decision-making? what do we know about whether and how women and girls’ voice, leadership and/or presence in ...» more

Do young people act to make a difference?


This brief from Twaweza draws on a survey of 2,432 Ugandans aged 15-35. It finds that they have a much greater sense of general self-efficacy than of political self-efficacy, perhaps reflecting mistrust of the political system. Almost a third of respondents say they have taken action to address community issues. Self-efficacy appears to matter more than gender, age, and ...» more

Women’s networks in MENA

There is a large number of women’s networks in the region, ranging in size and influence. Grassroots networks exist alongside high-level political and policy networks. Most are focused on women-only activities. The key areas of activity are: improving women’s entrepreneurship and developing women as business owners and business leaders; peacebuilding; reducing violence ...» more

Rights and social action for risk management: Reflections on local, national and international roles and responses

Maximillian Ashwill, Andrew Norton

This report explores the links between risk management, rights and collective action through a set of case studies. Risk is defined here as the possibility of loss. Case studies involving elements of social mobilisation across Ecuador; Bangladesh; Brazil; South Africa and Zimbabwe demonstrate ways in which the language and practice of human rights can support better conditions ...» more

Votes and Violence: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Nigeria

Paul Collier, Pedro Vicente

This paper investigates the 2007 Nigerian election violence based on a nationwide field experiment based on anti-violence campaigning. The campaign was randomised across neighbourhoods and villages of six states of Nigeria. These states represent the main socio-economic regions of the country. The campaign was conducted in half of those locations before the 2007 elections by a ...» more

The Role of Crowdsourcing for Better Governance in Fragile State Contexts

Maja Bott, Björn-Sören Gigler, Gregor Young

This study offers an overview of crowdsourcing as a resource for development, crisis response and post-conflict recovery. The paper reviews the factors necessary for crowdsourcing success (vision, trust, human capital, among others) and the challenges. It provides examples from important crowdsourcing and interactive mapping phenomena and initiatives in Haiti, Libya, Sudan and ...» more

Citizen-Led Accountability and Inclusivity in Pakistan

Tom Kirk

This paper examines the experiences of citizens' groups seeking to hold Pakistan’s elected representatives and governance institutions accountable. A recent citizen-led accountability programme across both conflict-affected and peaceful constituencies has reported significant success in mobilising volunteer groups to demand the resolution of local issues. This paper examines ...» more

Women’s participation in peace and security: Normative ends, political means

Pilar Domingo, Tam O’Neil, Marta Foresti

This briefing draws on recent ODI research and evaluation to review opportunities to promote women’s political participation and leadership in transitional and post-conflict settings, assess current international efforts to do so, and provide recommendations for policy and programming in this area. Key findings: Post-conflict and transitional settings provide real opportunities ...» more

Strengthening social justice to address intersecting inequalities post-2015

Veronica Paz Arauco et al.

The people most likely to be left behind by development are those facing 'intersecting inequalities', or economic deficits intersecting with discrimination and exclusion on the grounds of identity and locational disadvantage. The experiences and relative successes of seven countries reviewed in this report suggest that there are a small number of 'key ingredients' required to ...» more