Evidence and experience of procurement in health sector decentralisation

Improving the efficiency, effectiveness, equity and responsiveness of supply chains and procurement processes for pharmaceuticals, vaccines and other health products, which make up a large share of total health expenditure in low and middle-income countries (LMICs), has important implications for health system performance and population health. Decentralised governance of ...» more

Women’s resilience: Integrating gender in the response to Ebola

African Development Bank

This report presents the results of desk research by the African Development Bank’s Office of the Special Envoy on Gender on the implications of Ebola virus disease (EVD) for women in Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The reduction in health services has increased maternal, infant, and child mortality rates. According to reports across the three countries, women farmers and ...» more

Is the private sector more efficient? A cautionary tale

Sumedh Rao

This review finds no conclusive evidence that one model of ownership (i.e. public, private or mixed) is intrinsically more efficient than the others, irrespective of how efficiency is defined. Instead the literature suggests that the efficiency of service provision is dependent on the type of service (health, education, etc.) and other specific contextual factors (e.g. ...» more

External support for retention allowances

Retention allowances can come in the form of separate payments or salary top-ups. Donors have generally been reluctant to support retention allowances because they feel salaries are a government responsibility and because of concerns over the sustainability of such support. However, the scale of the crisis has sometimes been so great that they have stepped in to provide ...» more

Social policy

The development of social policy as a discipline is associated with the emergence of welfare states in European countries. This reading guide provides the user with some key texts and narrative. The development of European countries involved the progressive extension of rights, civil rights in the 18th century, political rights in the 19th century, and…» more

Impact and implications of the Ebola crisis

Political impact and implications: Initial analysis suggests that governments' poor management of the Ebola crisis has generated frustrations and exposed citizens’ lack of trust in their governments. The Ebola crisis is likely to play a very political role in the next election in Sierra Leone and there are predictions that the opposition will win as a result. Economic impact ...» more

Service delivery

Equitable access to essential public services is vital for human development, inclusive growth, and tackling persistent inequality. This topic guide provides an overview of the best available evidence on inclusive service delivery. It includes lessons from cases where aid has been effective at addressing weak front-line incentives, where services have been delivered in very ...» more

Women’s health, men’s health, and gender and health: Implications of intersectionality

Olena Hankivsky

Intersectionality challenges practices that privilege any specific axis of inequality, such as race, class, or gender and emphasizes the potential of varied and fluid configurations of social locations and interacting social processes in the production of inequities. Although intersectionality is now recognized in the context of women’s health, men’s health, and gender and ...» more

Why politics matter: Aid effectiveness and domestic accountability in the health sector

Leni Wild, Pilar Domingo

This paper looks at the impact of different modalities of aid on domestic accountability, by focusing on the health sector in Zambia and Uganda. It examines how aid and mechanisms around aid have interacted with domestic accountability relationships, as well as with information flows between donors and governments and outwards to citizens. In particular, it compares and ...» more

Promoting healthy behaviours and improving health outcomes in low and middle income countries: A review of the impact of conditional cash transfer programmes

Meghna Ranganathan, Mylene Lagarde

This paper provides an overview of Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) programmes in low and middle income countries and present the evidence to date on their contribution to improvements in health and the encouragement of healthy behaviours. Several bibliographic databases and websites were used to identify relevant studies. To be included, a study had to provide evidence of ...» more

A Congolese community-based health program for survivors of sexual violence. Conflict and Health

Anjalee Kohli, Maphie Tosha Makambo, Paul Ramazani, Isaya Zahiga, Biki Mbika, Octave Safari, Richard Bachunguye, Janvier Mirindi, Nancy Glass

Many survivors of gender based violence (GBV) in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) report barriers to access health services including, distance, cost, lack of trained providers and fear of stigma. In 2004, Foundation RamaLevina (FORAL), a Congolese health and social non-governmental organization, started a mobile health program for vulnerable women and men to address the ...» more

Mobile Telephony for Improved Health Service and Data Management

Key findings: There is significant potential for the use of mobile telephony to improve health service outcomes and data management. Opportunities include: serving as a less costly substitute for existing interventions; providing interactive functions that multiply the power of existing interventions; and serving entirely new functions. Countries recovering from conflicts and ...» more

Removing user fees in the health sector: a review of policy processes in six sub-Saharan African countries

Bruno Meessen, David Hercot, Mathieu Noirhomme, Valéry Ridde, Abdelmajid Tibouti, Christine Kirunga Tashobya, Lucy Gilson

In recent years, governments of several low-income countries have taken decisive action by removing fully or partially user fees in the health sector. This study reviews recent reforms in six sub-Saharan African countries: Burkina Faso, Burundi, Ghana, Liberia, Senegal and Uganda. The review describes the processes and strategies through which user fee removal reforms have been ...» more

Governance in the Health Sector: A Strategy for Measuring Determinants and Performance

William D. Savedoff

The role of rules and institutions in influencing the behaviour of health systems is increasingly acknowledged. This paper reviews the concept of governance as it is used in the literature on private firms, public administration, international development and health. The paper argues that governance should be understood as the combination of political, social, economic and ...» more

Education and Health: Where Do Gender Differences Really Matter?

World Bank

This study notes that investments in health and education – human capital endowments – shape the ability of men and women to reach their full potential. It examines gender gaps in education and health, and progress in addressing them. It finds that great progress had been made in cases where removing a single barrier – in markets, households or institutions – is required. ...» more

The Impact of Vouchers on the Use and Quality of Health Goods and Services in Developing Countries: A Systematic Review

Carinne Meyer et al.

Have health voucher programmes achieved their objectives? This study assesses and synthesises evidence on such programmes' targeting and their effects on service usage, quality and efficiency, and on people's health outcomes. It finds robust evidence that health voucher programmes can increase the use of health goods/services and modest evidence that they can effectively target ...» more

Experience with Health SWAps

Experiences with SWAps have shown that they can have a positive impact on improved national ownership and leadership; donor harmonisation and alignment; and greater coherence, transparency and accountability along the policy-result chain. This query examines the key determinants and prerequisites for success in health SWAps. It also looks at the success of different SWAp ...» more

Global Strategy for Women’s and Children’s Health

UN Secretary-General

This paper outlines the UN’s strategy for more fully improving the health of women and children around the world from 2010-2015. It sets out the key areas where urgent action is required to enhance financing, strengthen policy and improve service delivery. The Global Strategy focuses on women and children when they are most vulnerable. In the poorest areas of the world, ...» more

Decentralisation, governance and health-system performance: “where you stand depends on where you sit”

Andrew Mitchell, Thomas J. Bossert

It is often argued that when decentralisation is accompanied by adequate mechanisms of accountability service delivery will improve. From a governance perspective, it is generally argued that decentralisation of the health sector is the right thing to do as long as the underlying conditions of good governance exist and/or decentralisation will strengthen those conditions. From ...» more