An analysis of existing evidence around perceptions of the Tanzanian education system

This Helpdesk report has been commissioned to help understand the extent to which the education system currently meets young people’s needs and how far the school represents a safe space for young people. In line with the plan to gather insights and identify trends, themes and areas for discussion for policy meetings about the wider population’s views on the above issues, the ...» more

Evidence on education as a driver for migration

This report synthesises two previous reports on drivers of migration1, and focuses on the evidence on education’s role. The previous reports focused on education and migration in fragile and conflict-affected states (FCAS), and youth employment and education in low and middle income countries. The papers presented below reflect these original criteria, but reframe the studies ...» more

Haiti – Can smartphones make schools better?

World Bank

In Haiti, World Bank researchers worked with the Ministry of Education to evaluate a pilot program to use digital technology to help keep track of teachers in school and enable more effective monitoring of schools. The plan was to use smartphones to take photos in school of teachers and send the photos to a central server that could be accessed by school inspectors and ministry ...» more

Is the private sector more efficient? A cautionary tale

Sumedh Rao

This review finds no conclusive evidence that one model of ownership (i.e. public, private or mixed) is intrinsically more efficient than the others, irrespective of how efficiency is defined. Instead the literature suggests that the efficiency of service provision is dependent on the type of service (health, education, etc.) and other specific contextual factors (e.g. ...» more

Realising the right to a basic education in South Africa

Shaun Franklin & Daniel McLaren

Is South Africa meeting its constitutional and other legal obligations in making quality basic education accessible to all? This report finds that while progress has been made on access to basic education, quality and adequacy remain key issues that the government needs to address. This paper aims to guide the government in how to better fulfil these obligations and to provide ...» more

Links between education and peace

Education is a significant contributor to peace, and appears in two of the 24 indicators in the Positive Peace Index produced by the Institute for Economics and Peace.  Education can lead to peace and be a part of ‘building back better’ by supporting the transformation of the security situation, political institutions, economic regeneration and social development. However, ...» more

Curriculum development in fragile states to encourage peace and reduction of conflict

Research on education and conflict shows that education systems are not politically neutral but are an important part of the political economy that can exacerbate or mitigate conflict (Novelli et al., 2014; Bush and Saltareilli, 2000). The curriculum can be used as a vehicle to promote dominant ideologies. There are numerous instances where school curricula have been used to ...» more

Reaching boiling point: high school activism in Afghanistan

Antonio Giustozzi & Ali Mohmmad Ali

This research paper explores patterns of politicisation in Afghanistan’s high schools.  It reveals how the ban on political activities within schools has had little impact, and explores how the reproduction of the political establishment within schools poses a potential risk to Afghanistan's future stability. It suggests two ways to address this: (1) revoking the ban in order ...» more

External support for retention allowances

Retention allowances can come in the form of separate payments or salary top-ups. Donors have generally been reluctant to support retention allowances because they feel salaries are a government responsibility and because of concerns over the sustainability of such support. However, the scale of the crisis has sometimes been so great that they have stepped in to provide ...» more

Getting textbooks to every child in Sub-Saharan Africa: Strategies for addressing the high cost and low

Birger Fredriksen; Sukhdeep Brar; and Michael Trucano

Despite extensive technical support and funding from external partners, making textbooks affordable and available to students remains an elusive objective for most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study asks why it has been so hard to improve textbook provision comparative to other regions, exploring the cost and financial barriers. Recognising that progress has been ...» more

Where have all the textbooks gone? Towards sustainable provision of teaching and learning materials in Sub-Saharan Africa

Tony Read

This study is based on the multiple experiences of over 40 years’ of working in the education sector in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). It takes an evidence-based approach as it seeks to explain why adequate and effective TLM (Teaching and Learning Materials) provision has remained so elusive despite decades of funding, and suggests what needs to be done to make quality TLM ...» more

Transporting materials to schools

Most programmes have faced similar challenges and limitations in transporting materials to schools, and have found transferable approaches to what works. These are: Financing: the burden of paying for delivery falls on different actors. The literature is clear that either the government or the publishers should cover the costs, but often it has been teachers who travel to ...» more

Comprehensive sexuality education

Comprehensive sexuality education (CSE) has strong support in the international discourse, and is supported by a relatively robust evidence base. In general, the evidence suggests that CSE has positive impacts on behaviour change, such as increased condom use, girls’ empowerment and delayed sexual debut. This is achieved through increasing knowledge and changing attitudes. ...» more

Education and building legitimacy during conflict

This rapid review summarises the available evidence of how far support to education has strengthened governance during conflict. The main points made by the literature on education delivery during conflict and strengthened legitimacy for those delivering it includes: Service delivery and state legitimacy: expectations for services vary and this has an impact on the ...» more

Delivering education during conflict

Education is important for children’s wellbeing, development and future prospects, as well as for a country’s peace, stability and economic development; and is often a priority for those directly affected. Despite the challenges of delivering education during active conflict it is possible; and UN agencies, NGOs, and donors have supported governments, communities, and local ...» more

Social policy

The development of social policy as a discipline is associated with the emergence of welfare states in European countries. This reading guide provides the user with some key texts and narrative. The development of European countries involved the progressive extension of rights, civil rights in the 18th century, political rights in the 19th century, and…» more

Textbook development in low income countries: A guide for policy and practice

This manual on textbook provision in low income countries serves as an accompanying publication to a World Bank elearning course. It responds to the challenge of getting affordable books to school children when and where needed and aims to be a practical resource that covers key issues encountered in textbook development, ranging from authorship through to publication and ...» more

The political economy of education systems in conflict-affected contexts

Mario Novelli; Sean Higgins; Mehmet Ugur; Oscar Valiente

This rigorous literature review offers insights into the global, national and local governance of education systems in conflict-affected contexts. It finds that the literature is nascent, fragmented and partial, yet provides rich and complex insights into the challenges of improving education systems in conflict-affected contexts. The review concludes with a theory of change ...» more

Girls’ Education and Gender Equality

Elaine Unterhalter et al.

This literature review investigates the kind of interventions that can help expand and improve girls’ education and gender equality. All relevant literature published since 1991 was identified and systematically reviewed by a team of experts. A Theory of Change (ToC) was developed for the review which distinguishes between three kinds of interventions, namely those focusing ...» more