Penal systems

World Development Report 2011: Overview

World Bank

Some 1.5 billion people live in countries affected by repeated cycles of political and criminal violence. This report argues that breaking these cycles involves a) strengthening legitimate national institutions and governance to meet citizens' key needs; and b) alleviating international stresses that increase the risks of conflict (such as food price volatility and infiltration ...» more

Handbook for Legislation on Violence against Women

United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs

Comprehensive legislation is fundamental for an effective and coordinated response to violence against women. This Handbook intends to provide all stakeholders with detailed guidance to support the adoption and effective implementation of legislation that prevents violence against women, punishes perpetrators, and ensures the rights of survivors everywhere. It is especially ...» more

Haiti: Stabilisation and Reconstruction After the Quake

International Crisis Group

What are the challenges of and priorities for establishing post-disaster security and stability in Haiti? This paper finds that historical institutional and governance weaknesses and deep poverty compound Haiti's humanitarian crisis. An integrated, long-term reconstruction strategy is needed, based on a very broad political and social consensus. It is important to resume and ...» more

Addressing Violence Against Women in Security and Justice Programmes


How can violence against women and girls (VAW) be addressed more effectively in security and justice (S&J) programmes? This paper outlines how S&J programmes have addressed VAW and provides suggestions for improvement. Engagement with civil society is important; CSOs can help women to articulate their experience and can advocate for institutional and social change. A focus on ...» more

Leading Ahead, Yet Far Behind: Governance of the Security Sector in India

A. Mallika Joseph

How is India reforming its security sector and what are the challenges facing security sector reform (SSR) in the country? There is no comprehensive single SSR process in India, but reforms are underway in all key security sectors. These reforms have their root in developments after India's nuclear tests in 1998. They are self-driven, reactive, and piecemeal. Integrated, ...» more

Security Sector Reform in Bangladesh

M. Jashim Uddin

What is the present state of Bangladesh's security sector and its oversight mechanisms? What are the obstacles to reform? This paper focuses on the Bangladesh Army, the Bangladesh Rifles (BDR), the Bangladesh Police and the Rapid Action Battalion (RAB). It finds that the security sector, especially the police, is not accountable, transparent or efficient. The development of an ...» more

The Rule-of-Law Mission in Georgia (EUJUST Themis)

Xymena Kurowska

How successful was the European Union’s 2004-2005 Rule of Law mission in Georgia? This chapter analyses the experience of the first rule-of-law mission undertaken under the European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP). EUJUST Themis aimed to assist the government to develop an overarching criminal justice reform strategy based on local ownership. The mission was a stand-alone ...» more

The Integrated Rule of Law Mission for Iraq (EUJUST LEX)

Daniel Korski

How successful was the European Union’s 2005 Integrated Rule-of-Law mission in Iraq? This chapter of a book reviewing European Security and Defence Policy (ESDP) analyses the experience of the ESDP’s EUJUST LEX Mission. This mission was established (following an assessment by the EU Council’s ‘Iraq Expert Team’) to provide training to high and mid-level officials in senior ...» more

Security System Reform: What Have We Learned? Results and trends from the publication and dissemination of the OECD DAC Handbook on Security System Reform

Alan Bryden, Rory Keane

The OECD DAC Handbook on Security System Reform was published in 2007. What impact has it had in the headquarters of donors and agencies and on the ground? This report, by the OECD, makes recommendations based on the responses received between April 2007 and April 2009. It addresses priorities outlined in the SSR Handbook, which include the challenges of bringing about ...» more

The challenge of building sustainable peace in the DRC

Tatiana Carayannis

Ten years after the end of the second Congo war, violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) persists and armed groups operate with impunity. This Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue paper examines key lessons learned from recent mediation efforts and current challenges to durable peace in DRC. There is an urgent need to address the issue of long-term international and ...» more

Providing security and justice for the people: Security Sector Reform in Zimbabwe

Cheryl Hendricks, Lauren Hutton

Zimbabwe's new inclusive government, formed in 2008, provides an opportunity to consider provision of fundamental reforms of security and justice services to the people of Zimbabwe. This Institute for Security Studies paper examines Zimbabwe’s need for security sector reform (SSR) and recommends measures by which to construct an effective security sector. The will to achieve ...» more

Security Sector Reform Monitor: Haiti

Mark Sedra

A consensus among domestic security sector reform (SSR) actors in Haiti that the reform agenda is imposed from outside has led to limited local ownership of the process. This paper, published by the Centre for International Governance Innovation, reviews the current status of reform of Haiti’s judiciary, police and penal systems. Until the suspicion of reform measures imposed ...» more

Justice-Sensitive Security System Reform in the Democratic Republic of Congo

Laura Davis

What effect has a legacy of impunity for human rights violations had on the security sector in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)? How can the EU incorporate justice-sensitive reform initiatives within security system reform (SSR) programmes? This paper from the Initiative for Peacebuilding examines the need for justice-sensitive SSR in the DRC. It argues that strengthening ...» more

Paradoxes of Police Reform: Federalism, Parties, and Civil Society in Argentina’s Public Security Crisis

Kent Eaton

Why is police reform in Argentina so difficult? This article examines three obstacles to police reform: 1) federal institutions that magnify the effects of disputes over the police among national, provincial, and municipal government; 2) illicit benefits for political parties from unreformed police forces; and 3) deep ideological divisions within civil society over the ...» more

Reforms in the Judiciary: An Overview

Justice AR Lakshmanan

What can be done to successfully reform the judiciary? What key issues must be considered? What improvements have already been brought about as a result of the enactment of laws? This Halsbury's Law article provides an overview of reforms in the judiciary in India. It argues that unless the citizens of India are educated, the objective of the Constitution to provide legal ...» more

Pakistan’s Institutions and Civil Society

Jayshree Bajoria

Who are the key players in Pakistan’s power dynamics? What role is given to the judicial system and civil society? This report by Jayshree Bajoria offers a brief outline of the political power dynamics in Pakistan, including the traditional role of the military and intelligence agency. It follows by providing a detailed explanation as to other key players which have emerged as ...» more

The Dialectic of Police Reform in Nigeria

Alice Hills

Nigeria’s police are brutal and corrupt despite recent reform plans. Does this mean that reforms don’t raise policing standards and practices, even in a relatively democratic environment like Nigeria? This research from the University of Leeds analyses developments in the Nigerian Police since 2005. It argues that reform can change organisational structures and regulations but, ...» more

MINUSTAH and the Need for a Context-Specific Strategy: The Case of Haiti

Eirin Mobekk

How can Security Sector Reform (SSR) in Haiti be improved? This book chapter assesses the United Nations Stabilisation Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH), deployed in 2004. SSR is crucial to Haiti's stability and security, and while MINUSTAH’s success in SSR has been limited, UN agencies have a key role to play. Areas for improvement include coordination and evaluation. Basic ...» more

Politics of Justice Sector Reform

There are a wealth of case studies available that discuss the impact of politics on justice reform, with less available on how justice reform impacts politics. Most of the resources identified demonstrate how the macro-political environment impacts on the justice sector or explore political dynamics within the sector that affect reform. Less material was found that discusses ...» more

Security and Democracy in Southern Africa: Mozambique

Anicia Lalá

What impact has democratisation had on security in Mozambique? This chapter finds that democratisation prioritised public security and led to a total reorganisation of the security sector. While the sector is politically independent, its democratic accountability needs to be strengthened. In particular, its capacity must be improved in order to reduce high levels of ...» more