Political economy of conflicts in Kyrgyzstan since the 2000s

A fundamental finding, widely shared among authors, is that it is not only the national level that matters, but also regional and local ones, in violent and non-violent conflicts. In recent and older history, local conflicts sometime develop into national ones. Other key findings of the literature review include: The root causes of both conflicts are largely similar and ...» more

Human rights

Human rights emerged as a new field in international development in the 1990s. By 1997, the UN Secretary-General had called on all UN development agencies to mainstream human rights (1997), while development donors and NGOs increasingly committed themselves to a human rights approach. Diverse factors explain this seeming breakthrough of human rights. First, a growing…» more

Courts, clans and companies: Mobile money and dispute resolution in Somaliland

Nicole Stremlau and Ridwan Osman

Mobile money has thrived in Somaliland, providing access to storing money in e-wallets and the ability to pay for goods and services in a largely cashless economy. Its widespread adoption raises a number of social and legal questions, particularly around handling disputes. How are these disputes resolved, by which entities and according to which laws or regulations? Why are ...» more

Toward a rule of law culture: Exploring effective responses to justice and security challenges

Leanne McKay with Adewale Ajadi, Diane de Gramont, Hamid Khan, Rachel Kleinfeld, George Lopez, Tom Parker, and Colette Rausch

This guide lays out a rule of law culture approach to achieving a strong rule of law – an approach that places the human, social, historical, political, and power dynamics of a society at its core. Traditional approaches to promoting rule of law tend to prioritize the role of state institutions and adopt technical, law-led strategies. The rule of law culture approach, in ...» more

Whose security? Building inclusive and secure societies in an unequal and insecure world

Robin Luckham

This paper analyses the connection between security and development with the aim of clarifying the intricate issues involved in this interface. It argues that the nexus between security and development is historical, but also dependent on the rapidly changing world, evolving out of colonialism to facing the challenge of powerful market forces and technology for global profits. ...» more

Evidence synthesis: Security sector reform and organisational capacity building

Lisa Denney & Craig Valters

This synthesis examines the extent to which capacity building interventions in security sector reform have led to improved outcomes in accountability, responsiveness and capacity to deliver among security institutions and agencies in low- and middle-income countries. It further explores the factors enabling or hindering these improvements and the relationship between ...» more

Women, business and the law 2016: Getting to equal

World Bank

Since 2009, Women, business and the law has collected data about legal restrictions on women’s entrepreneurship and employment in order to inform policy discussions and promote research on the linkages between the law and women’s economic opportunities. This report is the fourth in the series. The report includes data on seven indicators: accessing institutions, using ...» more

Inclusive transitions framework

Seth Kaplan & Mark Freeman

Transitions are the critical moments where fragile states can transform their social and political dynamics by pursuing more inclusive and cohesive practices. This publication argues that an inclusive approach offers the only realistic way to transform the relationships, institutions and dynamics that have troubled these countries. It draws on past experiences of ...» more

Social accountability in war zones – confronting local realities of law and justice

Anna Macdonald and Tim Allen

How are justice and social order administered and experienced in poor, politically fragile and conflict-affected environments? This paper argues that international policies on expanding access to justice or promoting rule of law are devised and implemented on the basis of norms and assumptions rather than on evidence and careful analysis. The development and framing of policy ...» more

Social development and human development

This Topic Guide aims to answer the question ‘What is the interaction between social development issues and human development outcomes?’ An individual’s right to lead a long and healthy life, to be educated and to enjoy a decent standard of living cannot be realised without addressing social development issues. This is because these issues determine individuals’ access to ...» more

Security and justice evidence mapping

This report identifies empirical evidence on the outcomes of security and justice (S&J) interventions, and provides a visual overview of its findings in an evidence gap map. The evidence gaps appear where outputs and outcomes are less tangible and more difficult to operationalise and measure. The evidence is scarce for a number of justice-specific output and outcome ...» more

Facts about security and justice challenges

Some of the global statistics included in this report are: A gap in access to justice exists for a majority of the people in the world, perhaps even as many as two thirds, according to an estimate by the Hague Institute for the Internationalization of Law. Preventing and redressing violence against women and girls is now on the public policy agenda, but abuse and violence ...» more

The security gap in Syria: Individual and collective security in ‘rebel-held’ territories

Ali Ali

This paper examines security in Syria through the conceptual lens of the security gap. It compares the security situation in so-called ‘rebel-held’ areas of Syria where alternative governance structures have emerged, and areas dominated by the Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD). It argues that security and safety are strongly influenced by authority formation and the nature ...» more

The legitimacy of states and armed non-state actors

Legitimacy is a crucial aspect of all power relations. Without legitimacy, power is exerted through coercion; with legitimacy, power can be exerted through voluntary or quasi-voluntary compliance. Legitimacy lies at the core of state-citizen relationships and thus of the whole state-building agenda. This Topic Guide explores the meaning of legitimacy in relation to state and ...» more

Capacity building in the Ministry of Interior in fragile and post-conflict countries

This report reviews the literature engaging with a key issue, the reform of the Ministry of Interior (MoI) in fragile and post-conflict countries. While MoI reform is crucial to the success of Security Sector Reform (SSR), as it enables management and oversight of the internal security forces, it has often been neglected by international actors and by the SSR literature. The ...» more

Crime and conflict

Practitioners increasingly recognise that they need a better understanding of the link between crime and conflict. Many informal accounts suggest the political power of organised crime groups in violent and fragile contexts is growing. In the absence of functioning institutions and strong state-society relations, organised crime groups infiltrate local and national political systems to serve…» more

Initiatives to strengthen rule of law in Sindh

As in the rest of Pakistan, there are number of concerns relating to rule of law in Sindh that include: Difficulties accessing justice for the poor (Qaiserani, 2011, p. 1); lack of budget allocations for bodies such as the Sindh Human Rights Commission which prevent it from functioning (Zia, 2014, p. 2); dissatisfaction with the police; 39 per cent of Sindh respondents ...» more