A governance practitioner’s notebook: Alternative ideas and approaches

Alan Whaites et al.

This resource aims to stimulate thinking and debate. It provides briefings by a wide range of experts on politics, public sector reform and stakeholder engagement. The book charts the evolution of donor thinking and practice, highlighting current challenges and offering insights into new ways of working. It stresses the golden rule that supporting governance reform is ...» more

The state of corruption: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine

Transparency International

This report presents the results of research undertaken by Transparency International on corruption in Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine. It highlights promising developments in the field of anti-corruption, but also notes how the capture of important institutions by powerful interests is seriously undermining the effective enforcement of these ...» more

External support for retention allowances

Retention allowances can come in the form of separate payments or salary top-ups. Donors have generally been reluctant to support retention allowances because they feel salaries are a government responsibility and because of concerns over the sustainability of such support. However, the scale of the crisis has sometimes been so great that they have stepped in to provide ...» more

Managing change in PFM system reforms: A guide for practitioners

World Bank

This guidance note presents the key components of change management programs, together with several country cases, in order to assist practitioners in the design of change management and adaptive leadership programs as an integral part of country specific PFM system reform projects. Key findings: Key challenges for mobilising a large group of individuals (reform teams) ...» more

Public financial management in fragile states

Effective Public Financial Management (PFM) in fragile states is a critical foundation for basic economic governance and in establishing the performance, legitimacy and accountability of functional states. Extreme poverty is increasingly located in these countries, which face multiple challenges of ongoing conflict, instability and resource constraints, both financial and human. A June 2015 summary ICAI…» more

Political Economy and Governance in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)

This report is an update of a 2010 report, ‘Political Economy and Governance in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC)’, and is based on some of the recent literature on governance and political economy in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). The report outlines the following key governance and political economy issues discussed in the literature: Political ...» more

Political economy of citizenship regimes: Tax in India and Brazil

Aaron Schneider

Both Brazil and India have deepened their democracies over recent years, but with different impacts on state capacity. This paper evaluates changes to state capacity in both countries by looking at the political economy of citizenship regimes and tax. It finds that the distinct evolution of revenues and other policies reflects changes in each country’s citizenship ...» more

Climate finance and public finance management

Much attention has been directed at the international commitments to assist developing countries respond to climate change. This is reflected in the debate over the commitments made under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: at the UNFCCC negotiations in Copenhagen in 2009, developed countries committed to jointly mobilise $100 billion climate finance per…» more

Public sector institutional reform

The public sector is the single most important investment instrument for the state, and improving the way it is managed is critical for development outcomes including service delivery, social protection and private sector regulation. Public sector governance reform involves institutional reform – that is, changing the rules and norms that govern public sector activity. How can ...» more

Gender responsive budgeting

Gender responsive budgeting (GRB) brings together two issues that are not commonly associated with one another: gender equality and public financial management. GRB argues that gender equality principles should be incorporated into all stages of the budget process. GRB initiatives seek to improve the results of budgets in general, and gender equality and women’s empowerment…» more

Designing and monitoring PFM reform programmes

The PEFA framework is the most comprehensive assessment instrument. It provides indicators to measure all dimensions of a PFM system. While PEFA assessments are now in wide usage, other diagnostic instruments and tools – like the IMF Fiscal Transparency Code and various World Bank and OECD tools – are used alongside them for more specific purposes. Alternatively, ...» more

Why corruption matters: understanding causes, effects and how to address them

Alina Rocha Menocal, Nils Taxell, Jesper Stenberg Johnsøn, Maya Schmaljohann, Aranzazú Guillan Montero, Francesco De Simone, Kendra Dupuy, Julia Tobias

What are the conditions that facilitate corruption? What are its costs and what are the most effective ways to combat it? This paper assesses the current literature on corruption. It notes that corruption is a symptom of governance dynamics and institutional quality, and is enabled by economic, political, administrative, social and cultural factors. The collective and ...» more


What is meant by decentralisation and why is it so popular? Some form of public sector decentralisation is nearly universal practice. Is there clear justification? What is known about how well it works? How can policymakers and practitioners try to better design and implement decentralisation so as to reap potential benefits and limit potential problems?…» more

Pro-poor national budgets

There is a wealth of evidence that spending on basic social services (health, nutrition, education) and social protection can be progressive and reach the poor, with particularly high potential returns from expenditures in these sectors reaching poor and vulnerable women and children. In recent years, empirical research has reinvigorated interest in the potential poverty ...» more

Public financial management

PFM: Why does it matter and how best to improve it? What is Public Financial Management (PFM)? PFM refers to the set of laws, rules, systems and processes used by sovereign nations (and sub-national governments), to mobilise revenue, allocate public funds, undertake public spending, account for funds and audit results. It encompasses a broader set…» more

Corruption and Collective Action

Heather Marquette, Caryn Peiffer

This paper argues that both the collective action and principal-agent theories are valuable in understanding corruption. They add to our understanding of the scope and scale of challenges that anti-corruption efforts face, leaving one perspective out hollows this understanding. However, both miss out an important third perspective, which is that corruption can serve important ...» more

Grievance Redress Mechanisms in Bangladesh

The rapid literature review identifies literature on types of grievance redress mechanisms (GRM) in Bangladesh. Many current and proposed grievance redress mechanisms in Bangladesh have a number of similar features including: An assigned focal point or grievance redress officer who manage the grievance redress mechanism. There are different focal points for different levels ...» more