Political parties

Dominant party systems and development programming

There is a lack of applied thinking or rigorous empirical investigation into how donors and the international community can work with dominant party systems to promote more responsive state-society relations, or other forms of development progress. Frequently cited examples of existing research are not based on recent, systematic comparative research and focus mainly on ...» more

Factors supporting the emergence of democracies

This review of empirical case studies in this report suggests that, rather than a single theory to explain democratic transitions, a combination is usually applicable. In all cases it was a mix of factors that supported the emergence of democracies, due to time frames (some short-term, some long-standing) and also origin (some domestic, some external). This report draws on the ...» more

Political economy of conflicts in Kyrgyzstan since the 2000s

A fundamental finding, widely shared among authors, is that it is not only the national level that matters, but also regional and local ones, in violent and non-violent conflicts. In recent and older history, local conflicts sometime develop into national ones. Other key findings of the literature review include: The root causes of both conflicts are largely similar and ...» more

NIMD Country Programme evaluation

Laure-Hélène Piron

The Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy commissioned an institutional evaluation of the period 2011–2014, with a focus on three country programmes (Georgia, Guatemala and Mali). The first objective of the evaluation was to assess the extent to which NIMD achieved results in the period 2011–2014. The second objective was to assess the extent to which the NIMD ...» more

Reaching boiling point: high school activism in Afghanistan

Antonio Giustozzi & Ali Mohmmad Ali

This research paper explores patterns of politicisation in Afghanistan’s high schools.  It reveals how the ban on political activities within schools has had little impact, and explores how the reproduction of the political establishment within schools poses a potential risk to Afghanistan's future stability. It suggests two ways to address this: (1) revoking the ban in order ...» more

Political systems

Timor-Leste Holds Second Round of Presidential Election

Political systems are the formal and informal political processes by which decisions are made concerning the use, production and distribution of resources in any given society. Formal political institutions can determine the process for electing leaders; the roles and responsibilities of the executive and legislature; the organisation of political representation (through ...» more

Political party development in Ukraine

There are a combination of institutional and structural factors that account for party development in Ukraine. They include: The weakness of ideology in political parties Poor incentives for party institutionalisation due to the design and instability of the institutional rules of the game Extensive use of state administrative resources by regime-supported parties The ...» more

Politics Meets Policies: The Emergence of Programmatic Political Parties

Nic Cheeseman et al.

This publication is about programmatic political parties: parties that provide citizens with meaningful choice over policies by reaching out to them through coherent political programmes. It explains what programmatic parties are, in which environments they are likely to emerge and how they come about.A Survey of Dimensions and Explanations in the LiteratureSignificantly more ...» more

Political Parties in Africa through a Gender Lens

Rumbidzai Kandawasvika-Nhundu

The aim of this analysis is to determine the extent to which the policy documents of political parties in 33 countries in Africa include commitments to promoting gender equality and the equal participation and representation of men and women in political leadership, elective positions of power and decision making. With a specific focus on political parties as the institutions ...» more

Working with members of parliament’s constituency funds

The key points from this rapid literature review include: CDFs are a relatively recent phenomenon (with most being established from the 2000s onwards), and they are relatively few in number (Barkan & Mattes, forthcoming). As a result, little is known about them. Countries that have used CDFs include: South Sudan; Philippines; Honduras; Nepal; Pakistan; Jamaica; Solomon Islands; ...» more

Democracy strengthening in Sudan

This report summarises key points of development work and research conducted on democracy strengthening in Sudan. It excludes the nation-state of South Sudan, but does include some work covering the southern areas of Sudan before the secession in 2011. Most of the literature focuses on democratic elections, from voter education to election conduct, but this report also tries to ...» more

Community activism in Jordan

Protests in Jordan have been largely peaceful but unsuccessful in achieving real change. They have centred on improving governance, democracy and socio-economic conditions, not on overthrowing the regime. All strata of society have been involved. Findings include the following: Most of the recent protests in Jordan revolve around the socio-economic situation. Some ...» more

Impact of parliamentary and party assistance

Key findings: The impacts of parliamentary and party support have not received much analysis; there are a few rigorous evaluations, but significant evidence gaps remain. The existing evaluations are non-experimental short-term studies, which use case studies, interviews and literature reviews as their analysis methods. In general, they emphasise processes, outcomes and ...» more

Empowering Women for Stronger Political Parties: A Guidebook to Promote Women’s Political Participation

Julie Ballington

Over a period of eighteen months, the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the National Democratic Institute (NDI) compiled twenty case studies of party activities to promote women’s political empowerment. Drawing on those and other examples, UNDP and the NDI identified concrete steps that can be taken by political parties to promote women in political life. This ...» more

Improving Transparency and Accountability in the Budget Process: An Assessment of Recent Initiatives

Ruth Carlitz

Budget transparency has in recent decades come to be seen as a pillar of good governance by international organisations and civil society groups. This article reviews budget-related transparency and accountability initiatives (TAIs) to analyse their impact. Cross-national academic studies find that budget transparency is correlated with better credit ratings, better fiscal ...» more

Integrating parliamentary and political party strengthening in sectoral programmes

Key findings: There are limited examples of sectoral programmes that explicitly integrate support to parliamentary or political party strengthening in pursuit of sectoral goals. The majority of donor activities in support of parliaments and political parties have the objective of strengthening parliaments for the broader purpose of improving democratic governance. Such ...» more

The Challenges of Political Programming: International Assistance to Parties and Parliaments

Greg Power, Oliver Coleman

This paper examines the ways in which different donor agencies and implementing organisations are addressing the challenges of political programming. It uses the term ‘political programming’ to describe the recent attempts by donor agencies to apply more political forms of analysis (such as ‘drivers of change’) in the design, delivery and implementation of projects to achieve ...» more

Executive Accountability in Southeast Asia: The Role of Legislatures in New Democracies and Under Electoral Authoritarianism

William Case

Does a new democracy or electoral authoritarianism better allow legislatures to check the executive? This study examines accountability and legislative power in Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Cambodia and Singapore. While legislatures are weaker under electoral authoritarian regimes than in new democracies, they define the opposition better. Opposition members try to use ...» more

Do Ethnic Parties Exclude Women?

Stephanie S. Holmsten, Robert G. Moser, Mary C. Slosar

Do political parties that represent ethnic minorities tend to exclude women? This article examines patterns of female representation across 260 parties from 21 countries. It finds that ethnic parties – particularly those appealing to a religious minority – do tend to elect fewer women, but only under proportional representation (PR) systems that do not involve gender quotas. In ...» more