Donor support for post-conflict elections

In post-conflict environments, the international community has an important role to play in supporting the successful planning, delivery and embedding of elections within a wider context of support to political systems and democratisation. This rapid review provides an overview of lessons for donors in the field of electoral assistance in post-conflict societies in recent ...» more

Religious leaders and the prevention of electoral violence

There is limited literature specifically on the role of religious leaders in countering electoral and political violence, even less on ways in which to engage leaders in taking on such a role. While highlighting particular initiatives involving religious leaders during electoral cycles, this report also draws on literature that discusses the engagement of religious actors more ...» more

Fighting for votes: Theory and evidence on the causes of electoral violence

Olivier Sterck

This paper proposes a theoretical model of electoral violence which is tested and validated empirically. The paper studies if electoral violence is driven by (i) political competition (ii) the distribution of violent supporters and (iii) the ethnic distribution. The paper develops a model which predicts that electoral violence is more likely to emerge if two conditions are ...» more

The three political economies of electoral quality in Papua New Guinea and Solomon Islands

Terence Wood

This paper focuses on electoral quality and malpractice in the Melanesian countries of Papua New Guinea (PNG) and Solomon Islands. It argues that the electoral malpractice the countries experience is a product of three interacting political economies: national, international and local. It aims to offer a more comprehensive understanding of the origins of these electoral issues ...» more

Voluntary voter registration

Voter registration is not just the technical implementation of an activity; it is a holistic political, administrative and practical process. Successful voluntary voter registration schemes tend to be: Responsive to local conditions including the political, economic and social context of the country hosting the election Realistic and affordable given the financial and ...» more

Disability inclusion in the voter registration processes

Cambodian Disabled People's Organisation

Despite a number of laws protecting people with disabilities, elections in Cambodia are not yet inclusive. This report identifies challenges, good practice and steps that Cambodia's government, election administrators and civil society can take to protect the political rights of persons with disabilities. It calls for the NEC to address the challenges faced by person of ...» more

Elections and democracy support

The two main types of international elections support—technical aid for election administration and election monitoring—both got significantly underway in the second half of the 1980s and then mushroomed in the 1990s as democracy spread globally. Both remain active areas today though they are not, as many people in the developing world often think, the largest…» more

Votes and Violence: Evidence from a Field Experiment in Nigeria

Paul Collier, Pedro Vicente

This paper investigates the 2007 Nigerian election violence based on a nationwide field experiment based on anti-violence campaigning. The campaign was randomised across neighbourhoods and villages of six states of Nigeria. These states represent the main socio-economic regions of the country. The campaign was conducted in half of those locations before the 2007 elections by a ...» more

Political systems

Political systems are the formal and informal political processes by which decisions are made concerning the use, production and distribution of resources in any given society. Formal political institutions can determine the process for electing leaders; the roles and responsibilities of the executive and legislature; the organisation of political representation (through ...» more

Political party development in Ukraine

There are a combination of institutional and structural factors that account for party development in Ukraine. They include: The weakness of ideology in political parties Poor incentives for party institutionalisation due to the design and instability of the institutional rules of the game Extensive use of state administrative resources by regime-supported parties The ...» more

Dealing with election-related violence in fragile and conflict-affected states

There are a number of causes of election-related violence, which can occur at different stages of the electoral cycle. Dealing with this violence very much depends on understanding these causes and tailoring measures to address them. This report draws on guidance material, evaluation literature and empirical studies to provide a brief overview of measures to prevent and address ...» more

Social desirability bias and reported vote preferences in African surveys

Elizabeth Carlson

Much of what we know about voting behavior in Africa is based on data from public opinion surveys. However, there has been little investigation into whether reported voter preferences are reliable, or whether they are affected by bias, particularly that which may arise from the social undesirability of “tribalistic” voting. This study utilises a voting simulation experiment ...» more

Voting behaviour of marginalised groups in Indonesia

While there is limited evidence on the voting behaviour of individual groups living in conflict-afflicted provinces, the literature provides some information about the voting behaviour of people living in ethnically and religiously diverse conflict-afflicted/post-conflict provinces in Indonesia. This rapid literature review found very little evidence on whether other ...» more

Electoral accountability in Indonesia

There are many different definitions of electoral accountability. For the purposes of this report, electoral accountability is defined as citizens’ ability to use electoral mechanisms to incentivise politicians to act in their interests. In his literature review on electoral institutions and local government accountability Packel (2008, p. 1) notes that that “little ...» more

Direct elections and responsiveness in Indonesia

According to Rodden and Wibbels (2012, p. 4), responsiveness refers to a situation where “candidates offer, and then implement, distinctive platforms that reflect constituent preferences or demands.” This is the definition that is used for the purpose of this report. It is difficult to establish whether direct elections are the main driver of responsiveness. This is because ...» more

Cost of elections in fragile states

There is limited literature available on this topic. A lot of the information that is available only provides the cost of certain elements of the election, mainly in relation to voter registration. In addition, there appear to be inconsistencies in the costings provided by the available sources. The most comprehensive source currently available is “CORE: A Global Survey on ...» more

Path-Breakers: How Does Women’s Political Participation Respond to Electoral Success?

Sonia R. Bhalotra, Irma Clots-Figueras, Lakshmi Iyer

This paper analyses the effect of a woman’s electoral victory on women’s subsequent political participation. Using the regression discontinuity afforded by close elections between women and men in India’s state elections, the study find that a woman winning office leads to a large and significant increase in the share of female candidates from major political parties in the ...» more

Buying Votes vs. Supplying Public Services: Political Incentives to Under-Invest in Pro-Poor Policies

Stuti Khemani

This paper uses unique survey data to provide, for the first time in the literature, direct evidence that vote buying in poor economies is associated with lower provision of public services that disproportionately benefit the poor. Various features of the data and the institutional context allow the interpretation of this correlation as the equilibrium policy consequence of ...» more