Factors supporting the emergence of democracies

This review of empirical case studies in this report suggests that, rather than a single theory to explain democratic transitions, a combination is usually applicable. In all cases it was a mix of factors that supported the emergence of democracies, due to time frames (some short-term, some long-standing) and also origin (some domestic, some external). This report draws on the ...» more

NIMD Country Programme evaluation

Laure-Hélène Piron

The Netherlands Institute for Multiparty Democracy commissioned an institutional evaluation of the period 2011–2014, with a focus on three country programmes (Georgia, Guatemala and Mali). The first objective of the evaluation was to assess the extent to which NIMD achieved results in the period 2011–2014. The second objective was to assess the extent to which the NIMD ...» more

Making development work: The quality of government approach

Bo Rothstein & Marcus Tannenberg

This report synthesizes the current knowledge on why some countries have developed into prosperous societies while others have not, and puts forward conclusions for development policy. The report summarises qualitative as well as quantitative studies that have shown that quality of governance (QoG) factors, such as control of corruption, the rule of law, and administrative ...» more

Reaching boiling point: high school activism in Afghanistan

Antonio Giustozzi & Ali Mohmmad Ali

This research paper explores patterns of politicisation in Afghanistan’s high schools.  It reveals how the ban on political activities within schools has had little impact, and explores how the reproduction of the political establishment within schools poses a potential risk to Afghanistan's future stability. It suggests two ways to address this: (1) revoking the ban in order ...» more

Elections and democracy support

The two main types of international elections support—technical aid for election administration and election monitoring—both got significantly underway in the second half of the 1980s and then mushroomed in the 1990s as democracy spread globally. Both remain active areas today though they are not, as many people in the developing world often think, the largest…» more

Does the African middle class defend democracy? Evidence from Kenya

Nic Cheeseman

This paper uses the case of Kenya to investigate the attitudes and behaviours of the middle class. It uses Afrobarometer survey data to explore whether there is anything distinctive about the political attitudes of the Kenyan middle class. The paper measures class in four ways: education, employment status, poverty, and wealth (assets). It then tests whether these variables ...» more

Authoritarianism, democracy and development

Tim Kelsall

This paper reviews the evidence on authoritarianism and development from the perspective of a policy-maker providing advice to an ostensibly developmental authoritarian regime. It finds that the cross-national statistical evidence on regime type and development is inconclusive, and argues that varying experiences of development under authoritarianism are better-captured by ...» more

Political systems

Political systems are the formal and informal political processes by which decisions are made concerning the use, production and distribution of resources in any given society. Formal political institutions can determine the process for electing leaders; the roles and responsibilities of the executive and legislature; the organisation of political representation (through ...» more

The Middle Eastern Youth and the Arab Spring: Cross-National Variation and Trends in Values

Mansoor Moaddel, Julie de Jong

This paper analyses the data from the values surveys carried out in the region since in the past decades in order to assess cross-national variation and trend in the values and perceptions of the youth in several Middle Eastern countries. Based on this analysis, the study also assesses the extent to which the Arab Spring signifies the ushering in of a new cultural episode in ...» more

Demand for Democracy Is Rising in Africa, But Most Political Leaders Fail to Deliver

Michael Bratton, Richard Houessou

Africans express growing attachment to democracy according to citizen attitude surveys conducted by the Afrobarometer in 34 countries. Seven out of ten Africans prefer democracy to other political regimes, and the proportion of deeply committed democrats (that is, those who also reject authoritarian alternatives) has risen steadily over the past decade.This Afrobarometer policy ...» more

Promoting Democracy: What Role for the Democratic Emerging Powers?

Gerd Schönwälder

This article examines the role of the democratic emerging powers - India, Brazil, South Africa, Indonesia, and Turkey - in promoting democracy beyond their own borders. It argues that while these countries have potential advantages compared to western democracy promoters, namely, their own experiences in transitioning from authoritarian to democratic rule and their greater ...» more

Social mobilisation in urban contexts

Suggestions for improving urban social mobilisation include: Self-help groups: Creating community groups for expectant mothers, for example, or certain types of workers, can provide a basis for social support. These can used as a basis for social mobilisation to enable the public to demand and gain access to services. Issue-based targeting of individuals and groups: This ...» more

Malian Democracy Recovering, Military Rule Still Admired

Boniface Dulani

After experiencing a twin crisis of separatist rebellion and a military coup in 2012, there were serious concerns about the future prospects of democracy in Mali. Would the short, but brutal, experience of authoritarian rule and a separatist struggle make the return to democracy possible in the short to medium term? Would the country rediscover its position as one of Africa’s ...» more

Achieving Reforms in Oligarchical Democracies: The Role of Leadership and Coalitions in the Philippines

John T. Sidel

This paper examines the role of developmental leadership in two major reforms introduced in the Philippines in 2012: the passage into law of excise tax reform which significantly raised taxes on cigarettes and alcohol, and the re-registration of voters in the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). These reforms have a) strengthened government finances and healthcare; and ...» more

Freedom in the World 2014

Freedom House

For the eighth consecutive year, Freedom in the World showed an overall erosion in global freedom, with 54 countries registering declines and 40 earning gains in the report’s scoring system. The events of 2013 were shaped in part by authoritarian powers’ active resistance to democratic change and a crisis of confidence among leading democracies, particularly the United ...» more

Working with members of parliament’s constituency funds

The key points from this rapid literature review include: CDFs are a relatively recent phenomenon (with most being established from the 2000s onwards), and they are relatively few in number (Barkan & Mattes, forthcoming). As a result, little is known about them. Countries that have used CDFs include: South Sudan; Philippines; Honduras; Nepal; Pakistan; Jamaica; Solomon Islands; ...» more

State of Local Democracy Assessment Framework

Brechtje Kemp, Mélida Jiménez

This guide is a revised and updated version of the 2002 State of Local Democracy (SoLD) assessment framework. It contains four parts: a general introduction to the SoLD assessment framework; a special focus on the SoLD assessment framework itself; the process of conducting an assessment; and a detailed version of the framework, including the assessment questions.The framework ...» more

The Partnership of Free Speech and Good Governance in Africa

Winnie Mitullah, Paul Kamau

New data from Afrobarometer, collected during face-to-face interviews with 51,605 people in 34 countries during 2011-13, finds that freedom of speech is strongly linked to popular perceptions of both media effectiveness and good governance. People who indicate they are free to say what they think also report higher levels of trust in their leaders, lower levels of corruption, ...» more

Democracy, governance and randomised media assistance

Devra C Moehler

In recent years, the use of field experiments to study the impact of development assistance on democracy and governance outcomes (DG outcomes) has grown tremendously. However, most of the DG field experiments conducted to date focus on only a few sectors, namely elections, community and local governance, and service delivery (Moehler, 2010). Experimentalists have largely ...» more