Governance

Wastewater Treatment Plants in rapid mass displacement situations

This rapid review report has identified the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) options used in emergency settings, with decentralised wastewater treatment systems (DEWATS) and mobile wastewater treatment units performing most effectively and with minimal costs.  Examples are taken from refugee camps and internally displaced people (IDP) settlements due to the Iraq war, the ...» more

Rohingya refugee crisis: impact on Bangladeshi politics

The huge Rohingya refugee influx into Bangladesh is seen in the literature as likely to strengthen the position of the Bangladeshi Prime Minister Sheikh Hasina and her Awami League party. However, there are concerns that it will lead to further authoritarianism in the country, as well as fuel extremist sentiment. The Bangladeshi public are generally supportive of the ...» more

Waste management in situations of rapid, mass displacement

Solid waste and faecal sludge management in situations of rapid mass displacement are important to public health and providing for a better environment. Despite this, both have been neglected in WASH programmes, which tend to have a focus on water. However increasing efforts are being made to find solutions to challenges in solid waste and faecal sludge management in difficult ...» more

Environmental Impact Assessments in refugee crises

Although much of the literature found by this rapid review emphasises the necessity of including environmental considerations into the planning of mass displacement camps, and the role of environmental impact assessments (EIAs), there is little publically available literature on the assessments carried out, and the quality of these. The literature specifically highlights the ...» more

Innovative WASH options in situations of severe overcrowding

A rapid review of the literature has found a selection of innovative WASH options available for situations of severe population overcrowding and limited spaces.  Case study information was collated from African, Middle Eastern, South Asian and Caribbean countries.   As requested, a number of experts were consulted for their opinion where there was a lack of project evaluations ...» more

Digital tools and improving women’s safety and access to support services

It is broadly accepted that digital media and the internet can provide new forms of communication and engagement for women that make networking easier, increase their social capital and facilitate the creation/growth of women’s movements. Technology can also be used to mitigate gender-based violence and improve women’s safety in a number of ways: Electronic monitoring ...» more

Improving gender outcomes for regional trade programmes

Global trade and regional integration have gender-specific outcomes: in developing countries and specifically in South Asia, women do not have the same access as men to benefits of trade. This report reviews the gender outcomes of trade and describes policies and initiatives tackling the three main gender-based barriers to benefiting from trade: (i) sociocultural norms, (ii) ...» more

Resources on governance and inclusion

Inclusion is a prominent concept – some say “buzzword” – in current international development thinking and debates. The recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) promote inclusion – to “leave no one behind” – and place governance at the heart of achieving this. For example, SDG 16 aims to “Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide ...» more

Donor support for post-conflict elections

Well-timed elections can contribute to conflict resolution and help to consolidate a peace agreement or power-sharing deal among elites. But elections also have the potential to reignite hostilities. This report examines the following key factors, and how they have played out in recent post-conflict elections in Mozambique, Sierra Leone and Nepal: The content and ...» more

Criminal networks and the illicit wildlife trade

This five day help desk review provides an overview of academic, policy and practitioner literature that examines the illicit wildlife trade and criminal networks. Whilst there is a broad consensus that the illegal wildlife trade is a pressing and growing concern, there is much debate as to what this trade entails and who the key actors are. It is important to highlight that ...» more

The political economy of the illegal wildlife trade

This review is based on a rapid assessment of academic, donor and grey literature. A large part of recent scholarship in this area has been produced by international non-governmental organisations (INGOs), or else can be found in peer-reviewed academic journals. Authors do not appear to have engaged with the gender implications of IWT in the context of PEA. Most recent ...» more

Enforcement and regulation of the illegal wildlife trade in Sub Saharan Africa

Although Sub Saharan countries may have signed up to Multilateral Environment Agreements and regional frameworks and these are theoretically part of the country’s law, their importance is rarely considered at the national level. Therefore, there is a large disconnect between international, regional and local legal regimes. A consistent theme in the reviews is that significant ...» more

Three-tier federalism: examples and lessons

In most federal systems, municipalities are integrated into the state governments. Yet Argentina, Brazil, South Africa and Switzerland have adopted a three-tier federal structure in which exclusive legislative powers are granted to local government, below state and provincial government. While decentralisation has the potential to improve accountability and give greater ...» more

Social capital in Yemen

Social capital in Yemen is informed primarily by tribal affiliation, particularly in rural areas and in the north. Other important sources including faith based institutions, local community solidarity initiatives, civil society organisations and support from the diaspora. While social capital has been eroded due to political, social and economic changes in recent years, the ...» more

Stabilisation in Syria

The Syrian conflict is now in its seventh year and involves a wide range of both national and international parties. Crucially, no party is in a position to establish control over the entire country. This has implications for efforts at stabilisation. There is increasing recognition that the Assad regime cannot be displaced and hence efforts to find a political solution are ...» more