Rapid fragility and migration assessment for Eritrea

February 2016

Eritreans have fled the country in large numbers since the 1960s as a result of war, poverty and a lack of freedom. The 30-year long Independence war produced a diaspora of over a million people, mostly based in Sudan, the Middle East, Europe and the US. Significant numbers displaced during this war returned after Independence in 1993 and throughout the remainder of the ...» more

Rapid fragility and migration assessment for Sudan

Sudan is a source, transit, and destination country for migrants. Sudanese migrants are a mixed group of refugees and asylum seekers, economic migrants and, to a lesser extent, foreign students. The majority are men aged 25–40, and they come from a wide range of socioeconomic and educational backgrounds. The majority of refugees and asylum seekers are in neighbouring ...» more

Migration and refugee governance in the Mediterranean: Europe and international organisations at a crossroads

Sarah Wolff

Can international organisations (IOs) be a catalyst for change if Europe is unable to agree on a solution to the current Syrian refugee crisis and broader issues of the deadly migration into the region? The paper argues that the current crisis is not only a European but a transregional governance crisis and shows how IOs have been instrumental in framing an alternative debate ...» more

Migration trends across the Mediterranean: Connecting the dots

Altai Consulting

Who are the men and women, and increasingly children, who make the journey from their home countries across vast expanses of desert and eventually across the sea? What are the triggers, patterns, and push and pull factors shaping their decisions? This report draws on unique and in-depth qualitative research conducted in countries of the southern and northern shores of the ...» more

Drivers of irregular migration in North Africa

Irregular migration is the movement of people that takes place outside the regulatory norms of the sending, transit and receiving countries (IOM definition). A complex array of factors drives irregular migration. Most literature states that economic and conflict-related reasons, along with social networks and social support, are the major factors influencing migration. Economic ...» more

Impact of communication campaigns to deter irregular migration

Understanding the decisions to leave is a key part of the success of communication campaigns to deter irregular migration. However there is very little evidence on the impact and effectiveness of these campaigns and anecdotal evidence suggests that they have limited, if any, effect on migrants’ decisions to leave. Irregular migration is the movement of people that takes ...» more

Migration and conflict in Afghanistan

Migration flows in Afghanistan includes external migration to neighbouring countries and across the world, and internal migration with many internally displaced people (IDPs). The last three decades of conflict have led to overlapping outflows and return of Afghan migrants driven by a complex set of factors. The literature on the topic is mostly qualitative and often based on ...» more

Early warning models for irregular migration

Estimating and predicting migrations has been a growing issue on the agenda of scholars and policymakers in the last decades. Forecasting irregular migration is of particular interest to policymakers as a tool enabling them to adapt policy to future trends. The meaning of irregular migration is not always clear as there is no universally accepted definition. It is still ...» more

The economic, social and cultural rights of migrants in an irregular situation


This publication aims to fill a significant knowledge gap on the human rights of irregular migrants. While acknowledging the range of human rights concerns related to irregular migrants, it specifically sets out the legal and policy frameworks in relation to the economic, social and cultural rights of irregular migrants, highlighting the guidance provided by international human ...» more

Out of the Frying Pan into the Fire? Migration from Fragile States to Fragile States

Anke Hoeffler

Fragile states contributed 18 million migrants and 8 million refugees in 2000. More than 20% of these migrants and more than half of the refugees settle in other fragile states. Thus, migration is likely to be both a consequence and a possible cause of conflict and fragility. This paper asks why people from fragile states would want to move to another fragile state. Is it ...» more

Migrants’ Remittances, Poverty and Social Protection in the South Pacific: Fiji and Tonga

Richard P. C. Brown, John Connell,, Eliana V. Jimenez-Soto

Small island states are increasingly characterised by the growing role of international migration and remittances as components of national and household incomes. Recent household-level survey data on migration and remittances in two Pacific island states, Fiji and Tonga, demonstrate that where formal social protection systems are largely absent, migration and remittances can ...» more

World Disasters Report 2012: Focus on forced migration and displacement

International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies

Over 70 million people are forced migrants displaced by conflict, political upheaval, violence and disasters but also by climate change and development projects. Although rapid-onset events such as conflict or disaster may be the immediate reason forcing people to leave their homes, the search for better economic opportunities, slow-onset and progressive environmental ...» more

Too Close for Comfort? Immigrant Exclusion in Africa

Claire L. Adida

Why do some minority groups involved in South-South migration integrate into their host societies, whereas others face exclusion and hostility? Why, for example, are Nigerian Hausas integrated into Ghanaian society in Accra but rejected in Niamey (Niger)? This study draws on surveys of Nigerian Hausa and Yoruba immigrants and host populations in urban Ghana, Benin and Niger. ...» more

Migration and Global Environmental Change: Future Challenges and Opportunities

The Government Office for Science, UK

How might human population movements across the world be affected by global environmental changes up to 2060? This report examines both global and within-country migration trends. It finds that: millions will be 'trapped' in vulnerable areas and unable to move; people are as likely to move towards areas of environmental risk as to move away; but also that migration can ...» more

Crisis or Adaptation? Migration and Climate Change in a Context of High Mobility

Cecilia Tacoli

This paper argues that migration can be an adaptive strategy. There is growing evidence to suggest that mobility, together with income diversification, is important in reducing vulnerability to both environmental and non-environmental risks. Short-term urban migration is already often used a means of broadening income in times of agricultural shortage. Supporting migration to ...» more

In Search of Shelter: Mapping the Effects of Climate Change on Human Migration and Displacement

Koko Warner et al.

To what extent is climate change causing – and is likely to cause – the displacement and migration of people around the world? How should policymakers respond? This report draws on empirical evidence from a first-time, multi-continent survey of environmental change and migration. It argues that climate-related migration and displacement can be successfully addressed ...» more

Migration, Environment and Climate Change: Assessing the Evidence

Frank Laczko, Christine Aghazarm

How is environmental change affecting migration and how can policymakers address this emerging challenge? The book assesses the existing body of evidence relating to the likely impact of environmental and climate change on migration. It recommends that the focus of research and funding shift toward developing countries where migration, both internal and international, is most ...» more