Lessons from DDR programmes

While the literature on DDR programmes, their evolution and DDR experiences in individual countries (notably in Africa), is considerable and broadly consistent, there is little on the long-term effectiveness of DDR interventions. DDR programming has evolved significantly over the past few decades in response to changing situations and emerging challenges; from traditional ...» more

United they fall: Why the international community should not promote military integration after civil war.

Ronald R. Krebs

Civil war participants, scholars, transnational civil society, and international governmental organizations believe that military integration significantly reduces the risk of a society’s relapse into civil war. However, other than a few scattered case studies and some contradictory aggregate data analyses, there has been little theoretical or empirical investigation about what ...» more

Rethinking disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programs

Jairo Munive and Finn Stepputat

This article introduces the special issue of Stability: International Journal of Security & Development on disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) and ‘armed non-statutory actors’ (ANSA). In the 1990s, international DDR programs were used mostly to deal with statutory and insurgent armies following peace accords to which the warring parties were signatories. ...» more

Integration and power-sharing: What are the future options for armed non-state actors in the Myanmar peace process?

Helene Maria Kyed and Mikael Gravers

The ongoing peace process in Myanmar/Burma takes place alongside a transition from totalitarian military rule towards democracy and a rapid influx of international aid agencies and investors. This article engages with the wider debate about ‘Demobilization, Disarmament and Reintegration’ (DDR) programmes and argues that in the present Myanmar peacebuilding context it is highly ...» more



Conflict is inherent in all societies and arises when two or more groups believe their interests are incompatible. ‘Conflict’ is not, however, interchangeable with ‘violence’. Non-violent resolution is possible when individuals and groups have trust in their governing structures, society and institutions to manage incompatible interests. Conflict becomes a problem when this ...» more

Costs of peace processes

The rapid review indicated that there is limited literature available on this topic. The information uncovered by this rapid review focuses mainly on the latter stages of a peace process and the core components of supporting the success of the peace process. These include, for example, disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) processes, dialogue forums, transitional ...» more

The shadow economy in conflict-affected countries

Approaches which can be used to leverage the positive social function that shadow economies provide to conflict-affected populations include: Using humanitarian aid to complement people’s coping strategies (Goodhand, 2006). Understanding the relationship between different aspects of the economy through stakeholder assessments can reduce the risk that interventions have ...» more

Towards People-Centred Economic Reintegration? An Analysis of the Economic Reintegration Strategy of Demobilised Combatants in Colombia

Stefan Thorsell

This paper investigates the suitability of the economic reintegration strategy for former Colombian combatants, taking into account the challenges facing this population. It argues that the international discourse primarily consists of a market-centred versus a people-centred perspective, each with a distinct approach to economic reintegration. The paper finds that in Colombia ...» more

Understanding and Tackling Violence Outside of Armed Conflict Settings

Jeremy Lind, Becky Mitchell

Understanding and tackling violence that occurs outside of armed conflict settings is essential to improving the wellbeing of some of the world’s poorest communities. Whilst advances have been made in terms of designing policies that address violence in fragile or conflict-affected countries, progress has been slower in relation to dealing with violence happening outside of ...» more

Conflict and Stabilisation in Mali and the Sahel Region

The report covers factors including: Islamist terrorism; criminal networks and trafficking (of arms, drugs, cigarettes, and vehicles); and Tuareg rebellions against the Malian government. It also considers state weakness, including the weakness of state security structures in the north, and the role of neighbouring countries, ECOWAS, the AU and other international actors. ...» more

Interim Stabilisation in Fragile Security Situations

Nat J. Colletta

This article notes that conventional security promotion activities such as disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) and security sector reform (SSR) are often ineffective because the political, economic and social circumstances on the ground are not yet favourable. This is especially the case in early post-conflict settings when ceasefires and peace agreements have ...» more

Trusting the Enemy: Confidence in the State among Ex-Combatants

Enzo Nussio, Ben Oppenheim

What factors determine ex-combatants’ degree of trust in the state after their demobilisation? This paper presents the first empirical examination of this question through a survey of 1,485 former members of paramilitary and guerrilla groups in Colombia. The study found no evidence that social capital increased trust in the state. It also found that former fighters’ continued ...» more

Reintegrating and Employing High Risk Youth in Liberia: Lessons from a randomized evaluation of a Landmine Action agricultural training program for ex-combatants

Christopher Blattman, Jeannie Annan

In 2003, Liberia’s 14-year civil war finally came to an end. The war was disruptive and destructive, displacing the majority of Liberia’s 3 million inhabitants, halting economic activity, deepening poverty, and depriving a generation of basic education. The bulk of Liberia’s youth remain poor and underemployed. While the security situation has steadily improved since 2003, many ...» more

Cash payments in DDR programmes

Cash payments to ex-combatants are a common feature of Disarmament, Demobilisation and Reintegration (DDR) programmes, yet there is considerable debate in academic and donor circles about the benefits and risks of using them. Evidence on the impact of cash payments in DDR programmes is mixed, and experience has not been universally positive. Cash payments may take various ...» more

DDR and Transitional Justice

This report looks at the links between DDR and transitional justice. DDR programming has become a regular component of international peace support and peacebuilding architecture. DDR programmes can play an important role in limiting violence by disarming large numbers of actors and disbanding illegal, dysfunctional or bloated military structures. While there is a growing body ...» more

Working Effectively in Conflict-affected and Fragile Situations: Briefing Paper D: Promoting non-discrimination


Addressing discrimination, inequality and human rights is a core challenge of the state-building and peace-building process. It is at the centre of the negotiation of state–society relations and is a process rife with contradictions and tensions. Donors thus have a responsibility to address discrimination within their support to peace-building and state-building. The first ...» more

The KLA and the Kosovo War

Armend R. Bekaj

What were the factors in the Kosovan conflict that eventually led to Kosovo's declaration of independence as a sovereign state? This case study analyses the role of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) in the conflict, the emergence of Kosovo as a sovereign nation, and how the KLA and its members made the transition to peacetime roles. Unlike other resistance movements, whose ...» more

Insurgency, Militias and DDR as Part of Security Sector Reconstruction in Iraq: How Not to Do It

Alpaslan Özerdem

How should disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) be approached in Iraq in order to address the violence perpetuated by myriad armed groups? This article identifies possible strategies for this sensitive and controversial process by identifying, through comparison with Afghanistan, how not to carry out such programmes. Appropriate preparation for such a process is ...» more

Squaring the Circle: Palestinian Security Reform under Occupation

International Crisis Group

What recent changes have taken place in the Palestinian security sector? Have these improved the long-term prospects for peace? This report examines the security situation in the Palestinian West Bank since the second intifada of 2000. The Palestinian Authority (PA) has improved the security environment through security sector reorganisation and by tackling militant groups, but ...» more

Linking DDR and SSR in Post Conflict Peace-building in Africa: An Overview

W. Andy Knight

What are the linkages between disarmament, demobilisation, and reintegration (DDR) and Security Sector Reform (SSR)? This paper argues that there is a complementary relationship between DDR and SSR, and that they should be better integrated in peace building. Despite sharing the same objectives of contributing to peace and stability, few attempts have been made to link DDR and ...» more