Myanmar’s stabilisation challenges

The communities currently most at risk of, and affected by, conflict and violence are those living in the Kokang Self-Administered Zone and in other parts of northern Shan State. Other affected communities include those in Kachin, Rakhine, Chin and Kayin States. The community most affected by the threat of forced displacement is the Rohingya, a Muslim ethnic group, in Rakhine ...» more

Transitional justice

Participants end a mass ‘Blanket Exercise’ on Ottawa’s Parliament Hill in June 2015, which was organised by the Assembly of Seven Generations as part of the closing of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (Image: Adrian Gregorich/The Sentinel Project).

It is increasingly recognised that legacies of mass violence and human rights violations can, if left unaddressed, fuel future conflicts. Transitional justice seeks to tackle the legacies of large-scale past abuses, and includes mechanisms such as truth-telling initiatives, criminal prosecutions, reparations processes, cultural interventions, vetting and institutional ...» more


What is stabilisation? Stabilisation efforts have become a common policy component of intervention in conflict response throughout the world. In recent years, there have been significant stabilisation interventions in places such as the Western Balkans, Haiti and Mali, among others. The concept of stabilisation, understood as the requirement to meet basic humanitarian and development needs…» more

Lessons from DDR programmes

While the literature on DDR programmes, their evolution and DDR experiences in individual countries (notably in Africa), is considerable and broadly consistent, there is little on the long-term effectiveness of DDR interventions. DDR programming has evolved significantly over the past few decades in response to changing situations and emerging challenges; from traditional ...» more

State-society relations and citizenship

State-society relations, citizenship and socio-political cohesion are areas of great importance to statebuilding and peacebuilding and are crucial to an integrated approach. State-society relations are defined by DFID as ‘interactions between state institutions and societal groups to negotiate how public authority is exercised and how it can be influenced by people. They are ...» more

United they fall: Why the international community should not promote military integration after civil war.

Ronald R. Krebs

Civil war participants, scholars, transnational civil society, and international governmental organizations believe that military integration significantly reduces the risk of a society’s relapse into civil war. However, other than a few scattered case studies and some contradictory aggregate data analyses, there has been little theoretical or empirical investigation about what ...» more

The Central African Republic crisis

Since March 2013, the Central African Republic (CAR) has been experiencing violent sectarian conflict. The conflict initially began between two well-defined rival groups that became increasingly fragmented, with competing agendas and interests. Further, the current transitional government lacks the capacity and political will to enforce any real political reforms. A number ...» more

Supporting reconciliation in post-conflict situations

The key literature on reconciliation approaches is not very recent. However, there is a reasonable body of more recent evidence, particularly from Africa, of on-ground experience of implementing diverse reconciliation mechanisms. Given that reconciliation must be an indigenous process, one which donors can support but not lead/impose (see below), the literature says little ...» more

Building social cohesion in post-conflict situations

The approaches covered in this report include community-driven development, job creation, social protection and education. Whilst in theory there are strong links between these and social cohesion, there is very little rigorous empirical evidence to verify these links.  More specifically, the literature highlights that: Community-driven development (CDD) programmes promote ...» more

Resonating, rejecting, reinterpreting: Mapping the stabilization discourse in the United Nations Security Council, 2000–14

David Curran and Paul Holtom

The 2015 Report of the High-Level Independent Panel on Peace Operations examined a vast array of issues connected with peacekeeping operations. The Panel noted the strong link between peacekeeping and stabilization within the UN debates, stressing that the term has a ‘wide range of interpretations’, and that the ‘usage of this term by the United Nations requires clarification’. ...» more

Towards more people-centric peace operations: From ‘extension of state authority’ to ‘strengthening inclusive state-society relations’

Cedric de Coning, John Karlsrud and Paul Troost

Periods of conflict erode trust between national and local authorities and the people they govern, a trust that needs to be re-established. As peace operations are undertaken by inter-governmental bodies that tend to be inherently state-centric, however, peace operations need to go beyond merely supporting the extension of state-authority and strengthen inclusive state-society ...» more

Rethinking disarmament, demobilization and reintegration programs

Jairo Munive and Finn Stepputat

This article introduces the special issue of Stability: International Journal of Security & Development on disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) and ‘armed non-statutory actors’ (ANSA). In the 1990s, international DDR programs were used mostly to deal with statutory and insurgent armies following peace accords to which the warring parties were signatories. ...» more

Integration and power-sharing: What are the future options for armed non-state actors in the Myanmar peace process?

Helene Maria Kyed and Mikael Gravers

The ongoing peace process in Myanmar/Burma takes place alongside a transition from totalitarian military rule towards democracy and a rapid influx of international aid agencies and investors. This article engages with the wider debate about ‘Demobilization, Disarmament and Reintegration’ (DDR) programmes and argues that in the present Myanmar peacebuilding context it is highly ...» more

The role of women in international conflict resolution

Cassandra K. Shepherd

Women are disproportionately impacted by war and their experiences are distinct from men; further, although women may carry a heavier burden than men during wartimes, their experiences, views, and skills are often under-valued and under-utilized in the resolution of conflict. Peace agreements and reconstruction are more sustainable and effective when women are involved in the ...» more

Gender & conflict analysis toolkit for peacebuilders

Conciliation Resources

This resource includes examples from Conciliation Resources’ work. It was developed over two years and informed by research, reflection and discussion, involving colleagues, partners and numerous external experts. It begins with a summary of the essential concepts in gender and conflict analysis, and then expands on these concepts in three parts: Part I explores the ...» more

Striking for engagement: State-citizen relations in peacebuilding in Sierra-Leone

International Alert

Despite a clear emphasis on improving state-citizen relations in the Lome Peace Agreement and post-war peace-building agenda, challenges in Sierra Leone's state-citizen relations remain. The report analyses the scope and opportunities for citizens to influence government actions; the extent to which citizens take these opportunities and why; and the outcomes and impacts of such ...» more

The role of religion in conflict and peacebuilding

Sara Silvestri and James Mayall

The role of religion in conflict and peacebuilding is complex, yet has often been depicted in binary terms. The report offers an overview of the relationship between religion and conflict and looks at the evidence on religion as both a driver of conflict and as a driver of peace. A more nuanced understanding of religion as a fluid system of variables based on contextual and ...» more

The contribution of art and culture in peace and reconciliation processes in Asia

Ereshnee Naidu-Silverman

How can art and culture contribute to peace and reconciliation processes in post-conflict societies? Through a series of case studies this CKU occasional paper highlights how art methodologies can provide the non-didactic, participatory tools necessary for building relations between groups and contributing to long-term peacebuilding processes. It recommends long-term investment ...» more

Inclusive transitions framework

Seth Kaplan & Mark Freeman

Transitions are the critical moments where fragile states can transform their social and political dynamics by pursuing more inclusive and cohesive practices. This publication argues that an inclusive approach offers the only realistic way to transform the relationships, institutions and dynamics that have troubled these countries. It draws on past experiences of ...» more