Impacts of conflict

Conflict and gender dynamics in Yemen

The current conflict in Yemen, which began in 2015, has resulted in a humanitarian catastrophe. As of March 2017, 18.8 million people are in need of humanitarian support, and 10.3 million are in acute need (Sikurajapathy and Al-Fotih, 2017). Women, men, boys and girls have been affected in different ways by the conflict. This rapid reviews looks at the impact of the conflict ...» more

Gender and conflict in the Western Balkans

Ethnic wars in the Western Balkans had a parallel in ‘gender wars’ – and both were instrumental in fostering competitive, conflictual and antagonistic perspectives of social relations (Hughson, 2012). This report provides a brief summary of gender relations and (in)equalities in the Western Balkans, in particular, how they have been influenced by the violent conflicts following ...» more

Humanitarian contingency plans for military operations

The majority of the literature seems to focus on humanitarian contingency planning for the invasion of Iraq in 2003, and other older cases such as Kosovo. It is difficult to identify what pre-planning may or may not have been undertaken, as political sensitivities and the tendency for military secrecy around large-scale military operations means that few specific details are ...» more

The impact of protracted crises on attitudes and aspirations

The review draws on both academic and grey literature, which reflects the variety of approaches to understanding attitudes and aspirations and how they are formed. Of particular importance are discussions of social norms, networks and capital and how these shape relations between individuals and groups and thus influence the formation and evolution of attitudes and ...» more

Women and girls in forced and protracted displacement

There is general consensus in this grey and academic literature on the vulnerabilities faced by women and girls in forced and protracted displacement, although less is known about the opportunities they may have and the long-term impacts. Much of the recent evidence available focuses on displaced populations in Europe and countries neighbouring Syria. There is more of a focus ...» more

Lessons learned from security-related programming in stabilisation and conflict-affected contexts

The challenging environment that ongoing conflict presents means that evidence based analysis of security sector initiatives is hard to find (Ball and Walker, 2015, p. 3) and the evidence base uncovered by this rapid literature review is small. Interviews with experts suggest that there may be more documented cases and lessons which are not publicly available. Security ...» more

Violence against women in the Gaza strip after the Israeli military operation protective edge 2014

Catherine Müller and Laila Barhoum

This report explores violence against women (VAW) in the Gaza Strip following Operation Protective Edge. It highlights the relationship between VAWG in conflict-affected areas and levels of vulnerability of conflict and displacement. It also looks at the challenges organisations face in the provision of support services. The study recommends multidimensional responses that aim ...» more

‘They call me warrior’: The legacy of conflict and the struggle to end sexual and gender-based violence in Sierra Leone.

Elizabeth Mills, Zahrah Nesbitt-Ahmed, Jennifer Diggins and Tamba David Mackieu

This paper assesses the factors that underpin sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in Sierra Leone and outlines some of the challenges facing community-based initiatives addressing gender equality and SGBV. Findings suggest the war itself was an important catalyst of transformation on gender equality. The paper argues that SGBV is woven into people’s everyday lives, ...» more

Links between education and peace

Education is a significant contributor to peace, and appears in two of the 24 indicators in the Positive Peace Index produced by the Institute for Economics and Peace.  Education can lead to peace and be a part of ‘building back better’ by supporting the transformation of the security situation, political institutions, economic regeneration and social development. However, ...» more

Responding to mass atrocities and human rights abuses

Mass atrocities are generally understood as genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, but many other human rights abuses are committed in conflict-affected contexts. There are a range of responses to these abuses, particularly by national and international actors, constituting international criminal justice and transitional justice. Development actors are increasingly directly involved in managing conflict or…» more

Positive Peace report 2015

Institute for Economics and Peace

This report is a comprehensive summary of the concept of Positive Peace - an optimal environment under which human potential can flourish or, the attitudes, institutions and structures which create and sustain peaceful societies -  and its eight dimensions. It aims to address the lack of guidance on conceptualising, measuring and supporting interdependent key factors that ...» more

Youth transitions into adulthood in protracted crises

Protracted crises can have a significant impact on youth transitions into adulthood, both by delaying and accelerating them. Waithood is a term commonly used to describe the state in which youths find themselves when their transitions to adulthood are delayed. There is a significant body of literature on youth transitions into adulthood in developing countries, with heavy ...» more

The security gap in Syria: Individual and collective security in ‘rebel-held’ territories

Ali Ali

This paper examines security in Syria through the conceptual lens of the security gap. It compares the security situation in so-called ‘rebel-held’ areas of Syria where alternative governance structures have emerged, and areas dominated by the Kurdish Democratic Union Party (PYD). It argues that security and safety are strongly influenced by authority formation and the nature ...» more

Mechanisms underpinning interventions to reduce sexual violence in armed conflict: a realist-informed systematic review

Jo Spangaro, Chinelo Adogu, Anthony B. Zwi, Geetha Ranmuthugala and Gawaine Powell Davies

This literature review aims to identify both the mechanisms that underpin successful intervention and the contextual factors those mechanisms require. It identifies the important potential of building in mechanisms involving community engagement, awareness of responses and safe reporting provisions. The realist approach is an exploratory and theory-driven review method. It ...» more

Delivering education during conflict

Education is important for children’s wellbeing, development and future prospects, as well as for a country’s peace, stability and economic development; and is often a priority for those directly affected. Despite the challenges of delivering education during active conflict it is possible; and UN agencies, NGOs, and donors have supported governments, communities, and local ...» more

Crime and conflict

Practitioners increasingly recognise that they need a better understanding of the link between crime and conflict. Many informal accounts suggest the political power of organised crime groups in violent and fragile contexts is growing. In the absence of functioning institutions and strong state-society relations, organised crime groups infiltrate local and national political systems to serve…» more


Conflict is inherent in all societies and arises when two or more groups believe their interests are incompatible. ‘Conflict’ is not, however, interchangeable with ‘violence’. Non-violent resolution is possible when individuals and groups have trust in their governing structures, society and institutions to manage incompatible interests. Conflict becomes a problem when this ...» more

The impact of conflict on poverty

There is consensus in the literature that conflict impacts on poverty, but evidence on how this impact occurs is often limited, unsystematic, and sometimes contradictory. Much of the literature also discusses how poverty can contribute to conflict and the possibility of cycles of poverty and conflict as a result. Overall the latest evidence suggests that violent conflict ...» more

Conflict and the Formation of Political Beliefs in Africa

Achyuta Adhvaryu, James Fenske

This study tests whether living through conflict in childhood changes political beliefs and engagement. It combines data on the location and intensity of conflicts since 1945 with nationally representative data on political attitudes and behaviours from 17 sub-Saharan African countries. Exposure from ages 0 to 14 has a very small standardized impact on later attitudes and ...» more