Conflict sensitivity

Conflict-sensitive cash transfers: social cohesion

The literature suggests that the effects of social protection initiatives such as cash transfers and vouchers on social cohesion are positive, but there is very little empirical evidence to back this. This review found no research comparing cash transfers and vouchers from the perspective of social cohesion. Experience of cash transfers in developing countries, including ...» more

Conflict sensitivity

Relief effort for Syrian refugees in Kawrgosk refugee camp, Irbil, Northern Iraq. 21-23 August 2013

Reflection among aid actors after the devastating genocide in Rwanda led to the realisation that humanitarian and development actors contributed to increasing tensions and exacerbating the conflict. Aid interventions have since been understood to become a part of the context – and in conflict settings, to become part of the conflict. This acknowledgement that aid is not neutral ...» more

Peace Education and Conflict Transformation

Uli Jäger

This paper looks at the contribution peace education can make to conflict transformation, focusing on the one hand, on the theoretical foundations of peace education and, on the other, on developing context-appropriate practical approaches.The paper develops a basic concept of internationally oriented, context-related and process-oriented peace education. It also presents a ...» more

The Risks of African Military Capacity Building: Lessons from Rwanda

Danielle Beswick

Civil war and insecurity are widely seen as obstacles to development and threats to international stability, and donors are therefore keen to develop African capacities to manage conflict on the continent. Building the capacity of African militaries is hazardous, however, given their frequent roles in coups, support for authoritarian regimes, and violence against civilians.This ...» more

Protecting civilians: the gap between norms and practice

Ashley Jackson

How are civilians protected in armed conflict? A wide array of norms, laws, policies and mechanisms focused on improving the protection of civilians (PoC) in armed conflict have emerged since the early 1990s. These range from international conventions highlighting PoC and the establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) to PoC-mandated UN peacekeeping missions and ...» more

Aid and the Islamic State

Eva Svoboda, Louise Redvers

This crisis brief examines the flows of international aid into parts of Iraq controlled by militants from the so-called Islamic State (IS).Key findings:The group calling itself Islamic State (IS) has been present in Iraq in various incarnations for a decade or more. It made its first territorial claim in Iraq in early January 2014, seizing parts of the city of Fallujah in Anbar ...» more

From Principle to Practice: A User’s Guide to Do No Harm

Marshall Wallace

This book contains the lessons learned from the Do No Harm Project over the past twenty years. These lessons are largely techniques that allow practitioners to work in complex environments with confidence and effectiveness.Key Findings: The six overarching lessons learned by the Do No Harm Project form the basis of understanding how interventions have impacts. They outline the ...» more

The Economic Costs of Civil War: Synthetic Counterfactual Evidence and the Effects of Ethnic Fractionalization

Stefano Costalli, Luigi Moretti, Costantino Pischedda

There is a consensus that civil wars entail enormous economic costs, but reliable estimates are lacking, due to the endogenous relationship between violence and socio-economic conditions. This paper measures the economic consequences of civil wars with the synthetic control method, identifying appropriate counterfactuals for assessing the national-level economic impact of civil ...» more

Conflict sensitivity in education, the private sector and infrastructure development

Conflict sensitivity in education: There has been increasing awareness that education systems are not neutral. Education can exacerbate conflict if it increases social tensions or divisions between groups. This may be the case if: education policies and practice are inequitable; education systems reinforce identity grievances; or educational curricula promote militarism.It is ...» more



Conflict is inherent in all societies and arises when two or more groups believe their interests are incompatible. ‘Conflict’ is not, however, interchangeable with ‘violence’. Non-violent resolution is possible when individuals and groups have trust in their governing structures, society and institutions to manage incompatible interests. Conflict becomes a problem when this ...» more

Conflict analysis of Algeria

Local and regional protests about a diverse range of socio-economic issues have been taking place in Algeria since 2011. However, much of the literature suggests that Algeria was not greatly affected by the protests emerging from the 'Arab Spring'. The Algerian government has succeeded in preventing protests from escalating to the levels witnessed in neighbouring countries ...» more

Report of the Secretary-General on Women, Peace and Security

UN Secretary-General

This is the Secretary General’s 2013 report (S/2013/525) on Women, Peace and Security (WPS). It notes there were measurable advances in all areas of the women, peace and security agenda. It stresses numerous good practices while also outlining several deficits, notably lack of women’s leadership, poor provision of resources necessary for addressing women’s rights and needs, and ...» more

Gender, Conflict and Peace

Dyan Mazurana, Keith Proctor

Women and girls are marginalised within most societies. That, coupled with the violence of conflict and its gendered dimensions, can often lead to increased vulnerability and to particular kinds of loss, violence and harms. We can clearly see the trends in women and girls’ reduced access to resources, livelihood inputs and basic services; increased family and social ...» more

INEE Guidance Note on Conflict Sensitive Education

Cynthia Koons

This INEE Guidance Note on Conflict Sensitive Education aims to contribute a reference tool for education practitioners and policy makers on how to provide education in ways that are conflict sensitive. The strategies mentioned are designed to provoke thought rather than indicate prescriptive measures, as one of the keys to conflict sensitivity is adaptation to each unique ...» more

Monitoring and evaluating conflict sensitivity: methodological challenges and practical solutions

Rachel Goldwyn, Diana Chigas

This document gives practical guidance on how to monitor and evaluate the interaction between an intervention and conflict. It includes a discussion of the methodological questions that arise when embarking on a process to monitor and evaluate for unintended interactions with conflict, as well as a range of practical and field-tested tools. This document aims to help those ...» more

Guidance Note: Human Rights and Do No Harm


When practitioners are using the Do No Harm (DNH) frameworks they often encounter issues around human rights. This is not surprising when looking at conflict situations. While DNH is not explicitly a human rights ‘tool’, human rights are implicitly included in the DNH frameworks through the analysis of Dividers and Connectors and in the ABCs. Because human rights violations ...» more

Manual: 3 steps for working in fragile and conflict-affected situations

Esther Marthaler, Sidonia Gabriel

This manual provides a practical approach tailored for project management in fragile and conflict-affected situations; it was developed over several years of experience, as well as workshops, meetings and discussions with fieldworkers. The 3-Step approach focuses on aspects of violence and fragility that are relevant to development programmes or projects. It promotes a ...» more

Conflict Dimensions of International Assistance to Refugees from Syria in Lebanon

Sibylle Stamm

This discussion paper explores a selected number of key areas of potential interaction of international assistance provided to refugees from Syria with conflict dynamics in Lebanon. It focuses on international assistance delivered inside Lebanon and does not cover aid programmes destined for Syria or other neighbouring countries. It aims to facilitate a discussion among policy ...» more