Peace agreements

Implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 in Libya

The literature on gender equality, development and security suggests that sustainable peace and successful long-term development are linked to gender equality policies (Selimovic & Larsson, 2014: 5). UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (SCR 1325), approved in 2000, reaffirms the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, peace-building, and in ...» more

Communicating peace agreements

There is limited research on the process of conducting such referendums and how to communicate the contents of peace agreements and constitutions to the electorate. The 1998 referendum in Northern Ireland has received the greatest attention in the literature. Available research focuses on factors that can influence whether a referendum is likely to be won, including discussion ...» more


All peace agreements need to address the question of the cessation of violence and in most cases this is done through a ceasefire of some kind. Typically, conflict parties will seek to put in place mechanisms to immediately stop the violence and prevent its resurgence. These mechanisms will most often enjoy international support (in terms…» more

Making women count – not just counting women: Assessing women’s inclusion and influence on peace negotiations

Thania Paffenholz, Nick Ross, Steven Dixon, Anna-Lena Schluchter and Jacqui True

This report presents an analysis of women’s inclusion in peace negotiations distilled from the ‘Broadening Participation in Political Negotiations and Implementation’ project. This is an ongoing multi-year research project started in 2011 at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland, to address the lack of evidence-based knowledge on ...» more

United they fall: Why the international community should not promote military integration after civil war.

Ronald R. Krebs

Civil war participants, scholars, transnational civil society, and international governmental organizations believe that military integration significantly reduces the risk of a society’s relapse into civil war. However, other than a few scattered case studies and some contradictory aggregate data analyses, there has been little theoretical or empirical investigation about what ...» more

The role of women in international conflict resolution

Cassandra K. Shepherd

Women are disproportionately impacted by war and their experiences are distinct from men; further, although women may carry a heavier burden than men during wartimes, their experiences, views, and skills are often under-valued and under-utilized in the resolution of conflict. Peace agreements and reconstruction are more sustainable and effective when women are involved in the ...» more

The design and architecture of peace processes: lessons learned in the wake of crises

Vicenç Fisas

This study aims to propose frameworks and models for the initial stages of negotiations, and make suggestions for their redesign that take into account the most common crises that inevitably arise during the process. A range of variables are used to analyse different methodologies and forms of mediation and facilitation, along with the kinds of actors that may be involved, ...» more

Impact of external assistance on local-level peace settlements in the Middle East and North Africa

Armed conflicts have inflicted massive suffering and material losses on the populations of several MENA countries since 2011 (or earlier). At the same time, local peace settlements in delimited geographic areas have been reached in several of these contexts. This rapid review of the literature presents evidence on positive and negative impact in MENA. Available knowledge shows ...» more

National Dialogue in Sudan: Past Experiences and Current Challenges

Atta El-Hassan El-Battahani

Since independence, Sudan has undergone a number of national peace agreements, some of which were observed and honoured for short periods. The net result of broken agreements has driven the country into deep conflict, leading to the secession of South Sudan in 2011, and creating a crisis which still threatens the country with further violence and dismemberment. While Sudan ...» more

Religion and Mediation: The Role of Faith-Based Actors in International Conflict Resolution

J. Bercovitch, S.A. Kadayifci-Orellana

This paper emphasises the importance of religion and religious actors in the process of mediation. We examine the general conditions that facilitate mediation in international relations and assess how much these hold true in the case of faith-based mediation. We find that aspects such as legitimacy and leverage have a major impact on the success or failure of mediation. We ...» more


Conflict is inherent in all societies and arises when two or more groups believe their interests are incompatible. ‘Conflict’ is not, however, interchangeable with ‘violence’. Non-violent resolution is possible when individuals and groups have trust in their governing structures, society and institutions to manage incompatible interests. Conflict becomes a problem when this ...» more

Lessons from implementing peace agreements: what next for Colombia?

Conflict in Colombia has deep roots, with over 50 years of armed conflict between state and non-state armed forces, more than 220,000 people estimated dead, and five million internally displaced people (ICG, 2013). Since the 1980s, there have been many formal and informal peace negotiations between the state and the different non-state armed groups. But no agreement to date has ...» more

Political Settlements, Elite Pacts, and Governments of National Unity: A Conceptual Study

Edward Laws

How should political settlements be defined and understood? How should elite pacts and governments of national unity (GNUs) be defined and understood? The concept of the 'political settlement' has been used in a variety of subtly, but significantly, different ways. Sometimes it has been used interchangeably with 'elite pacts', 'elite bargains' or 'peace agreements'. This paper ...» more

Education in Peace Agreements, 1989-2005

Kendra E Dupuy

How has education been addressed in peace agreements? This paper from the Conflict Resolution Quarterly aims to fill a gap in research by providing a systematic overview of the way education has been included in peace agreements and its role as a peacemaking strategy. The way in which education is addressed varies significantly in terms of what it entails, how it will be ...» more

Not Always in the People’s Interest: Power-Sharing Arrangements in African Peace Agreements

Andreas Mehler

Peace agreements that place a heavy emphasis on power-sharing often preclude people’s interests and can impede sustainable peace. This paper, published by the German Institute of Global and Area Studies, analyses the impact of power-sharing arrangements in recent African peace agreements. Many peace agreement failures are caused in part by the international community’s support ...» more

Protecting Civilians Through Peace Agreements: Challenges and Lessons of the Darfur Peace Agreement

Jeremy Brickhill

Why do some peace processes create conditions for effective protection of civilians while others don’t? This paper, authored by Jeremy Brickhill, uses lessons learned from the Darfur Peace Agreement to argue that inadequate attention to security aspects of peace processes leads to failure of peace agreements and civilians left at risk. Security arrangement negotiations and ...» more

Addressing Internal Displacement in Peace Processes, Peace Agreements and Peace-Building

Brookings-Bern Project on Internal Displacement

How can internal displacement best be integrated into peace processes, peace agreements and peacebuilding? This report from the Brookings-Bern Project on Internal Displacement contends that resolving displacement is strongly connected to achieving peace, especially in cases of large-scale displacement. Assisting displaced people to return and reintegrate has the potential both ...» more

The People’s Peace? Peace Agreements, Civil Society, and Participatory Democracy

Christine Bell, Catherine O'Rourke

To what extent do peace agreements support participatory democracy? This article from the International Political Science Review analyses the provision made by post-1990 peace agreements for civil society. It demonstrates the importance of peace processes to theories of civil society. It does not, however, draw conclusions about the relationship between provision for civil ...» more

Accountability and Peace Agreements: Mapping Trends from 1980 to 2006

L Vinjamuri, A P Boesenecker

To what extent have peace agreements incorporated mechanisms for dealing with justice issues? This study from the Centre for Humanitarian Dialogue analyses 77 verified peace processes from around the world between 1980 and 2006. Negotiating justice is a complex and difficult process, especially within a peace agreement involving a whole range of additional issues.Although it is ...» more

Protecting Civilians Through Peace Agreements – Challenges and Lessons of the Darfur Peace Agreement

J Brickhill

Why did the Darfur Peace Agreement (DPA) fail to create conditions for civilian protection? This paper from the Institute for Security Studies (ISS) argues that this was largely a result of the failure to secure effective ceasefire arrangements, a prerequisite for the achievement of a political settlement. A potential ceasefire was lost to short-term political expediency that ...» more