Conflict response

Implementation of UN Security Council Resolution 1325 in Libya

The literature on gender equality, development and security suggests that sustainable peace and successful long-term development are linked to gender equality policies (Selimovic & Larsson, 2014: 5). UN Security Council Resolution 1325 (SCR 1325), approved in 2000, reaffirms the important role of women in the prevention and resolution of conflicts, peace-building, and in ...» more

Drivers of conflict in the Swat Valley, Pakistan

There is a substantial body of literature that explores drivers of conflict in the Swat Valley, but assessments of the impact of interventions are more limited. While the drivers of conflict in the Swat Valley have some unique characteristics, it is difficult to separate these from the genesis of militancy in the wider Afghanistan/Pakistan border region given their shared ...» more

International humanitarian law and peace processes

There is limited research and no empirical evidence exploring links between the degree to which IHL is respected (or ignored) and the success (or failure) of peace processes.  The literature focuses on various related issues, including negotiating with non-state armed groups, the question of why conflict groups may comply with international humanitarian norms, and the need to ...» more

Communicating peace agreements

There is limited research on the process of conducting such referendums and how to communicate the contents of peace agreements and constitutions to the electorate. The 1998 referendum in Northern Ireland has received the greatest attention in the literature. Available research focuses on factors that can influence whether a referendum is likely to be won, including discussion ...» more

Ceasefires

All peace agreements need to address the question of the cessation of violence and in most cases this is done through a ceasefire of some kind. Typically, conflict parties will seek to put in place mechanisms to immediately stop the violence and prevent its resurgence. These mechanisms will most often enjoy international support (in terms…» more

In their words: perceptions of armed non-state actors on humanitarian action

Geneva Call
2016

What do armed non-state actors (ANSAs) think of humanitarian action? This paper finds that while they are willing to engage positively with humanitarian actors, they feel left out of the processes which determine humanitarian principles and international law. Understanding of rules around humantarian access is relatively limited and needs to be addressed. It calls for a more ...» more

Making women count – not just counting women: Assessing women’s inclusion and influence on peace negotiations

Thania Paffenholz, Nick Ross, Steven Dixon, Anna-Lena Schluchter and Jacqui True
2016

This report presents an analysis of women’s inclusion in peace negotiations distilled from the ‘Broadening Participation in Political Negotiations and Implementation’ project. This is an ongoing multi-year research project started in 2011 at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland, to address the lack of evidence-based knowledge on ...» more

United they fall: Why the international community should not promote military integration after civil war.

Ronald R. Krebs
2016

Civil war participants, scholars, transnational civil society, and international governmental organizations believe that military integration significantly reduces the risk of a society’s relapse into civil war. However, other than a few scattered case studies and some contradictory aggregate data analyses, there has been little theoretical or empirical investigation about what ...» more

Supporting reconciliation in post-conflict situations

The key literature on reconciliation approaches is not very recent. However, there is a reasonable body of more recent evidence, particularly from Africa, of on-ground experience of implementing diverse reconciliation mechanisms. Given that reconciliation must be an indigenous process, one which donors can support but not lead/impose (see below), the literature says little ...» more

It’s not a gift when it comes with price: A qualitative study of transactional sex between UN peacekeepers and Haitian citizens

Athena R. Kolbe 2015
2015

Sexual exploitation of civilians by peacekeepers undermines the fragile stability established in post-conflict settings. Despite this, it continues to be an ongoing problem for peacekeeping missions worldwide.  This article presents data from a study that explores the opinions and experiences of Haitians who engage in transactional sex with peacekeepers. The findings present a ...» more

Markets in crises: The conflict in Mali

Veronique Barbelet and Marthe Diallo Goita
2015

Market analyses are key to informing decisions around transfer modalities (cash, voucher or in-kind).Traditionally this has focused on the availability and price of key commodities,but it has recently expanded to supply  chain analysis, value chain analysis and pre-crisis market mapping. This study takes a more sociological perspective and, using Mali as a case study, asks ...» more

The role of women in international conflict resolution

Cassandra K. Shepherd
2015

Women are disproportionately impacted by war and their experiences are distinct from men; further, although women may carry a heavier burden than men during wartimes, their experiences, views, and skills are often under-valued and under-utilized in the resolution of conflict. Peace agreements and reconstruction are more sustainable and effective when women are involved in the ...» more

The contribution of art and culture in peace and reconciliation processes in Asia

Ereshnee Naidu-Silverman
2015

How can art and culture contribute to peace and reconciliation processes in post-conflict societies? Through a series of case studies this CKU occasional paper highlights how art methodologies can provide the non-didactic, participatory tools necessary for building relations between groups and contributing to long-term peacebuilding processes. It recommends long-term investment ...» more

Responding to mass atrocities and human rights abuses

Mass atrocities are generally understood as genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, but many other human rights abuses are committed in conflict-affected contexts. There are a range of responses to these abuses, particularly by national and international actors, constituting international criminal justice and transitional justice. Development actors are increasingly directly involved in managing conflict or…» more

Peacekeeping

The aim of peacekeeping is to preserve peace, normally after a peace agreement has been achieved. It has evolved from a primarily military activity, observing cease-fires and separation of forces after inter-state conflict, to multidimensional missions taking on a range of civilian tasks. Peacekeeping is conducted by both the United Nations and by regional organisations,…» more

The design and architecture of peace processes: lessons learned in the wake of crises

Vicenç Fisas
2015

This study aims to propose frameworks and models for the initial stages of negotiations, and make suggestions for their redesign that take into account the most common crises that inevitably arise during the process. A range of variables are used to analyse different methodologies and forms of mediation and facilitation, along with the kinds of actors that may be involved, ...» more

Impact of external assistance on local-level peace settlements in the Middle East and North Africa

Armed conflicts have inflicted massive suffering and material losses on the populations of several MENA countries since 2011 (or earlier). At the same time, local peace settlements in delimited geographic areas have been reached in several of these contexts. This rapid review of the literature presents evidence on positive and negative impact in MENA. Available knowledge shows ...» more

The interplay between war and human rights

Chandra Lekha Sriram; Olga Martin-Ortega; and Johanna Herman
2014

Developing useful policy responses to conflict and human rights requires an understanding of conflict dynamics and conflict resolution as well as international human rights and humanitarian law. This chapter introduces key issues and concepts in the complex relationship between war and human rights, and highlights the varying ways that  human rights violations and conflict they ...» more