Dealing with election-related violence in fragile and conflict-affected states

There are a number of causes of election-related violence, which can occur at different stages of the electoral cycle. Dealing with this violence very much depends on understanding these causes and tailoring measures to address them. This report draws on guidance material, evaluation literature and empirical studies to provide a brief overview of measures to prevent and address ...» more



Conflict is inherent in all societies and arises when two or more groups believe their interests are incompatible. ‘Conflict’ is not, however, interchangeable with ‘violence’. Non-violent resolution is possible when individuals and groups have trust in their governing structures, society and institutions to manage incompatible interests. Conflict becomes a problem when this ...» more

Methods for monitoring and mapping online hate speech

Approaches to mapping hate speech online can be classified into three principal groups based on their purpose: Real-time monitoring and mapping: These projects, the best known of which is the Umati project in Kenya, aim to provide continuous monitoring of online media. Such projects are rare, but they have the potential to serve as early warning systems or enable a reaction ...» more

Costs of peace processes

The rapid review indicated that there is limited literature available on this topic. The information uncovered by this rapid review focuses mainly on the latter stages of a peace process and the core components of supporting the success of the peace process. These include, for example, disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration (DDR) processes, dialogue forums, transitional ...» more

Mapping Conflict Trends in Pakistan

Saira Yamin, Salma Malik

Over the past decade, Pakistan has experienced a significant rise in violence in terms of frequency, scope, and magnitude. The origins and intensity of violence vary regionally and involve both longstanding conflict actors and new groups. This report maps recent conflict trends in Pakistan and explores the trajectory of violence in the provinces—namely, Punjab, Sindh, Khyber ...» more

Sending messages to reduce violent conflict

Key findings Research for this helpdesk report did not find a specific body of literature focused on sending messages to change attitudes, norms and behaviour about violent conflict. Rather, there is a wide range of literature that covers interventions to address conflict, which include the sending of messages in one form or another, and often as part of a wider strategy. This ...» more

Report of the Secretary-General on Women, Peace and Security

UN Secretary-General

This is the Secretary General’s 2013 report (S/2013/525) on Women, Peace and Security (WPS). It notes there were measurable advances in all areas of the women, peace and security agenda. It stresses numerous good practices while also outlining several deficits, notably lack of women’s leadership, poor provision of resources necessary for addressing women’s rights and needs, and ...» more

Gender, Conflict and Peace

Dyan Mazurana, Keith Proctor

Women and girls are marginalised within most societies. That, coupled with the violence of conflict and its gendered dimensions, can often lead to increased vulnerability and to particular kinds of loss, violence and harms. We can clearly see the trends in women and girls’ reduced access to resources, livelihood inputs and basic services; increased family and social ...» more

Conflict Dimensions of International Assistance to Refugees from Syria in Lebanon

Sibylle Stamm

This discussion paper explores a selected number of key areas of potential interaction of international assistance provided to refugees from Syria with conflict dynamics in Lebanon. It focuses on international assistance delivered inside Lebanon and does not cover aid programmes destined for Syria or other neighbouring countries. It aims to facilitate a discussion among policy ...» more

Men as perpetrators and victims of armed conflicts: Innovative projects aimed at overcoming male violence

Rita Schäfer

A more detailed analysis of various diverging war experiences of boys, male adolescents and men is essential for development cooperation in post-war societies and must be taken into consideration for project planning and implementation. Differentiated gender perspectives are required in order to put an end to tolerated, widespread gender-specific and sexualized violence. In ...» more

Nudging Armed Groups: How Civilians Transmit Norms of Protection

Oliver Kaplan

The article examines the varying roles that norms play to either enable or constrain violence in armed conflict settings, by drawing on experiences from communities and armed groups in Colombia and Syria. It begins by presenting an explanation of how norms of violence and nonviolence may arise within communities and influence the behaviour of civilian residents, reducing the ...» more

Preventive diplomacy and conflict prevention

This report provides an overview of the literature on preventive diplomacy and conflict prevention, with particular emphasis on regional approaches to preventive diplomacy. The last few years have seen a renewed interest in both preventive diplomacy and conflict prevention. Regional initiatives are playing an increasingly important role in preventive diplomacy and conflict ...» more

Glass half full: Study on EU lessons learnt in mediation and dialogue

A. Sherriff, V. Hauck, C. Rocca

The EU has developed its capacity and experience in mediation and dialogue over the last 20 years along the lines of the five roles of the EU: as a mediator itself, and in promoting, leveraging, supporting and funding mediation and dialogue. Lessons learnt articulated in this study cut across or reference the five roles and range from Track 1 (the highest political level) to ...» more

State fragility and social cohesion

This report reviews the relationship between social cohesion and state fragility – focusing on literature from 2010 onwards. There is no clear empirical understanding in the literature of how social cohesion contributes to state resilience or fragility, as it is very difficult to measure, and to assess independently other variables that impact on state fragility. Key points ...» more

The Perils of Peacekeeping without Politics: MONUC and MONUSCO in the DRC

Emily Paddon

This Usalama Briefing Paper sets out the history of UN involvement in the eastern DRC and analyses the challenges that continue to face the mission, even as it prepares to deploy a new intervention brigade, charged with neutralizing and disarming rebel groups and bolstering Congolese state reform. It’s key findings are:The UN’s ability to play a constructive role in the Congo ...» more

The search for common ground: civil–military relations in Afghanistan, 2002–13

Ashley Jackson, Simone Haysom

This study finds that experiences in Afghanistan highlight significant tension between stabilisation and internationally recognised guidelines and principles governing civil–military interaction. Civil–military dialogue was more effective when it was rooted in International Humanitarian Law (IHL) and strategic argumentation, such as advocacy focused on reducing harm to ...» more

New Technology and the Prevention of Violence and Conflict

Francesco Mancini, editor

This report explores the ways in which new technologies can help international actors, governments, and civil society organisations to more effectively prevent violence and conflict. It examines the contributions that cell phones, social media, crowdsourcing, crisis mapping, blogging, and big data analytics can make to short-term efforts to forestall crises and to long-term ...» more

Lessons from the African Union Mission for Somalia (AMISOM) for Peace Operations in Mali

Matt Freear, Cedric de Coning

Mali and Somalia have both suffered Islamist-inspired insurgencies, and in both African Union-led peace operations have been a central pillar in political and security stabilisation efforts. This article argues that, despite challenges in transferring lessons between unique situations, the AMISOM experience can offer some useful lessons for Mali. Factors that helped to drive ...» more

Border insecurity in North Africa

The literature on border security in North Africa has several key themes: security and terrorism; migration; and goods trafficking. These issues are all intertwined. Migration and trafficking tend to follow the same geographical routes, which or may not also include weapons smuggling for extremist groups. In addition, radicalists’ movements across borders frequently interact ...» more