Conflict analysis of Kenya

Kenya is a large multi-ethnic country, with over 40 different ethnic groups and many overlapping conflicts. It has high levels of sexual and gender-based violence and of intercommunal violence; low levels of persistent violence; cycles of election-related violence; and increasing numbers of terrorist attacks. The incidence, gravity and intensity of violence have all increased ...» more

Islamist radicalisation and terrorism in Tanzania

The literature generally emphasises that while relations between Christian and Muslim groups are increasingly tense, there is evidence that Tanzania is not ‘a battleground for conflicting civilisations’ (Heilman & Kaiser 2002, p. 692). Many argue that while a number of identity groups (political, religious, ethnic) have served as the basis for political organisation and ...» more

Crime and conflict

Practitioners increasingly recognise that they need a better understanding of the link between crime and conflict. Many informal accounts suggest the political power of organised crime groups in violent and fragile contexts is growing. In the absence of functioning institutions and strong state-society relations, organised crime groups infiltrate local and national political systems to serve…» more

Jobs, unemployment and violence

(This 10-minute presentation accompanying the reading pack was recorded at the GSDRC Seminar on Conflict and Development, London, 23 March 2015.) The notion that unemployment is a strong probable cause or motivating factor behind violence and violent conflict is remarkably pervasive in international development. It is believed that unemployment triggers participation in insurgencies, prompts people…» more

Horizontal inequalities

(This 15-minute presentation accompanying the reading pack was recorded at the GSDRC Seminar on Conflict and Development, London, 23 March 2015.) Civil wars are one of the main sources of state fragility, low incomes and poor human development. Hence, policies to prevent conflict must be a high priority for those concerned with promoting development in…» more

Crisis management models in Africa

The rapid review uncovered very little literature detailing general crisis management models in Africa. It found almost no literature on the experience of using such crisis management models in relation to crises such as public disorder, political unrest, and epidemics. However, some independent evaluations of crisis management models used to respond to food security crises ...» more

Deterrence as a security concept against non-traditional threats: In-depth study

This study focuses on the international dimension of five threats that could affect the Netherland: terrorism; threats in the cyber domain; organised crime; threats in the economic domain; and ambiguous warfare. It also analyses the applicability of deterrence as an instrument in the context of each area. These main areas of threat are discussed in terms of the following ...» more

Radicalisation of diaspora communities

Much of the literature emphasizes that radicalisation cannot be attributed to any one factor, but is rather the outcome of a multiplicity of factors. Individual and community influences (micro level) include: Identity crisis: second and third generation immigrant and diaspora communities may experience ‘cultural marginalisation’ in terms of alienation and lack of ...» more

Lessons from Female Engagement Teams

Evaluations of Female Engagement Teams (FETs) used by the military to engage with women in Afghanistan that are available indicate that: Female soldiers have had a deescalating effect as Afghan males generally accepted females being searched as long as it was done by other females. FETs have had positive engagement with both women and men and were viewed as a kind of ‘third ...» more

Social media and conflict management in post-conflict and fragile contexts

Some of the roles social media has played in conflict management include: In some cases social media and other new media tools have been used to help hold governments accountable, bring citizens together to protest violence, coordinate relief efforts, empower citizens, provide information to reduce tensions, and build bridges of understanding across boundaries. In other cases ...» more

Learning from governance initiatives for conflict resolution: Local agency, inclusive dialogue and developmentality

This report seeks to draw lessons learned from several of the governance initiatives for conflict resolution under examination in the Cultures of Governance and Conflict Resolution in Europe and India (CORE) project. The report finds that there is a general lack of consideration for local agency and its potential capacity in the design and implementation of initiatives, and ...» more

Women, gender and the evolving tactics of Boko Haram

Jacob Zenn, Elizabeth Pearson

This article addresses an aspect of Boko Haram’s activities: gender-based violence (GBV) and its targeting of women. It argues that 2013 marked a significant evolution in Boko Haram’s tactics, with a series of kidnappings, in which one of the main features was the instrumental use of women. This was in response to corresponding tactics by the Nigerian security ...» more

Peace Education and Conflict Transformation

Uli Jäger

This paper looks at the contribution peace education can make to conflict transformation, focusing on the one hand, on the theoretical foundations of peace education and, on the other, on developing context-appropriate practical approaches.The paper develops a basic concept of internationally oriented, context-related and process-oriented peace education. It also presents a ...» more

Counter-terrorism laws and regulations: what aid agencies need to know

Jessica Burniske with Naz Modirzadeh, Dustin Lewis

What are the practical and legal consequences of counterterrorism laws for humanitarian action? This paper provides an overview of some of the most salient questions that humanitarian actors are grappling with in planning effective, principled, and lawful operations in high-risk environments. It highlights several factors which seem to indicate significant and possibly ...» more

Fragile Reforms: World Bank and Asian Development Bank financing in fragile and conflict-affected situations

Monica Stephen

Drawing from research into the delivery of five bank-financed projects covering infrastructure and other sectors, this study highlights a range of insights and opportunities to enhance how the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank (ADB) approach project financing in fragile and conflict-affected situations.The study documents how conflict-sensitive approaches are and are ...» more

The Risks of African Military Capacity Building: Lessons from Rwanda

Danielle Beswick

Civil war and insecurity are widely seen as obstacles to development and threats to international stability, and donors are therefore keen to develop African capacities to manage conflict on the continent. Building the capacity of African militaries is hazardous, however, given their frequent roles in coups, support for authoritarian regimes, and violence against civilians.This ...» more

Protecting civilians: the gap between norms and practice

Ashley Jackson

How are civilians protected in armed conflict? A wide array of norms, laws, policies and mechanisms focused on improving the protection of civilians (PoC) in armed conflict have emerged since the early 1990s. These range from international conventions highlighting PoC and the establishment of the International Criminal Court (ICC) to PoC-mandated UN peacekeeping missions and ...» more

Poverty and Crime: Evidence from Rainfall and Trade Shocks in India

Lakshmi Iyer, Petia Topalova

This paper examines the mechanisms underlying the observed relationship between rainfall and crime. Using four decades of district level data from India, the study establishes a robust effect of rainfall shocks on different types of crime, with the strongest effects on violent crimes and property crimes. It then examines to what extent poverty is the main causal pathway between ...» more

Masculinities, conflict and peacebuilding: Perspectives on men through a gender lens

Hannah Wright

This paper aims to advance discussions about integrating a masculinities perspective into peacebuilding policy and practice. It examines existing programmes that promote non-violent and gender equitable masculinities and poses key questions about how these can be further developed to challenge the gender norms which drive conflict and insecurity.The paper consists of desk ...» more