Conflict

Poverty and conflict

Poverty and conflict are widely understood to be closely interconnected; with poverty making countries more prone to civil war, and armed conflict weakening governance and economic performance, thus increasing the risk of conflict relapse (Goodhand 2001). The selected readings in this pack move beyond reductive and harmful assumptions about ‘pathologies’ of poverty to examine the…» more

Drivers of conflict in the Swat Valley, Pakistan

There is a substantial body of literature that explores drivers of conflict in the Swat Valley, but assessments of the impact of interventions are more limited. While the drivers of conflict in the Swat Valley have some unique characteristics, it is difficult to separate these from the genesis of militancy in the wider Afghanistan/Pakistan border region given their shared ...» more

International humanitarian law and peace processes

There is limited research and no empirical evidence exploring links between the degree to which IHL is respected (or ignored) and the success (or failure) of peace processes.  The literature focuses on various related issues, including negotiating with non-state armed groups, the question of why conflict groups may comply with international humanitarian norms, and the need to ...» more

Humanitarian contingency plans for military operations

The majority of the literature seems to focus on humanitarian contingency planning for the invasion of Iraq in 2003, and other older cases such as Kosovo. It is difficult to identify what pre-planning may or may not have been undertaken, as political sensitivities and the tendency for military secrecy around large-scale military operations means that few specific details are ...» more

Transitional justice

It is increasingly recognised that legacies of mass violence and human rights violations can, if left unaddressed, fuel future conflicts. Transitional justice seeks to tackle the legacies of large-scale past abuses, and includes mechanisms such as truth-telling initiatives, criminal prosecutions, reparations processes, cultural interventions, vetting and institutional ...» more

The impact of protracted crises on attitudes and aspirations

The review draws on both academic and grey literature, which reflects the variety of approaches to understanding attitudes and aspirations and how they are formed. Of particular importance are discussions of social norms, networks and capital and how these shape relations between individuals and groups and thus influence the formation and evolution of attitudes and ...» more

Safety, security and justice

Safety, security and justice are priorities for poor people and are associated with development outcomes. What do we know about what has – or hasn't – worked in safety, security and justice programming, and where? This updated Topic Guide for policymakers and practitioners synthesises the evidence, challenges and approaches that emerge from the literature. ...» more

Communicating peace agreements

There is limited research on the process of conducting such referendums and how to communicate the contents of peace agreements and constitutions to the electorate. The 1998 referendum in Northern Ireland has received the greatest attention in the literature. Available research focuses on factors that can influence whether a referendum is likely to be won, including discussion ...» more

Disasters, conflict and fragility: A joint agenda

Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery
2016

How can the international community better understand the multi-dimensional nature of risk and crises? How can international partners integrate the implications of this analysis for their own strategies and approaches? How can strategic partnerships be strengthened in future engagements in fragile and conflict-affected countries? This paper provides an analysis on current ...» more

Libyan political economy

Much has changed in Libya since April 2014. However, Libya remains highly unstable and divided along multiple fracture lines, with a multitude of armed and non-armed groups. Given the fluidity of relations between these groups, literature on the country situation becomes quickly outdated. Libya has three rival claimants to power: a reconvened General National Congress (GNC) ...» more

Stabilisation

What is stabilisation? Stabilisation efforts have become a common policy component of intervention in conflict response throughout the world. In recent years, there have been significant stabilisation interventions in places such as the Western Balkans, Haiti and Mali, among others. The concept of stabilisation, understood as the requirement to meet basic humanitarian and development needs…» more

Stability and instability in the Gulf region in 2016: A strategic net assessment

Anthony H. Cordesman
2016

The Gulf region is a complex and constantly evolving region that involves very different levels of uncertainty and risk. This net assessment attempts to address the underlying problems and pressures shaping the risks in the region and each Gulf country using official data and data from key international institutions like the UN, World Bank and the IMF. It identifies overarching ...» more

Climate change, conflict and children

Richard Akresh
2016

This paper reviews the evidence linking climate variability to conflict, and the subsequent short and long-term implications of children’s exposure to conflict. Evidence generally supports strong links between hotter temperatures, reduced rainfall and more conflict. Individuals exposed to conflicts while in utero or during early childhood suffer negative health and education ...» more

Violent extremism in Africa

This paper analyses data from three regional “hotspots” of violent extremism in sub-Saharan Africa: Boko Haram in the Lake Chad region; Ansar Dine, al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM), and al Mourabitoun (among others) in the Sahel; and Al Shabaab in the Horn of Africa. It suggests that security-related issues are a priority for citizens of countries that have experienced ...» more

Ceasefires

All peace agreements need to address the question of the cessation of violence and in most cases this is done through a ceasefire of some kind. Typically, conflict parties will seek to put in place mechanisms to immediately stop the violence and prevent its resurgence. These mechanisms will most often enjoy international support (in terms…» more

The role of online/social media in countering violent extremism in East Africa

There is growing recognition amongst academics and policy makers that de-radicalisation and countering violent extremism programmes can be a more effective way of tackling extremism than purely militaristic approaches. Online and social media are useful in the dissemination of counter narratives in multiple languages, and to reach a broad, geographically diverse audience.  The ...» more

Lessons from DDR programmes

While the literature on DDR programmes, their evolution and DDR experiences in individual countries (notably in Africa), is considerable and broadly consistent, there is little on the long-term effectiveness of DDR interventions. DDR programming has evolved significantly over the past few decades in response to changing situations and emerging challenges; from traditional ...» more

In their words: perceptions of armed non-state actors on humanitarian action

Geneva Call
2016

What do armed non-state actors (ANSAs) think of humanitarian action? This paper finds that while they are willing to engage positively with humanitarian actors, they feel left out of the processes which determine humanitarian principles and international law. Understanding of rules around humantarian access is relatively limited and needs to be addressed. It calls for a more ...» more

Making women count – not just counting women: Assessing women’s inclusion and influence on peace negotiations

Thania Paffenholz, Nick Ross, Steven Dixon, Anna-Lena Schluchter and Jacqui True
2016

This report presents an analysis of women’s inclusion in peace negotiations distilled from the ‘Broadening Participation in Political Negotiations and Implementation’ project. This is an ongoing multi-year research project started in 2011 at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, Switzerland, to address the lack of evidence-based knowledge on ...» more